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Clinical Strategies for Managing Acute Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Anemia Without Blood Transfusion

Clinical Strategies for Managing Acute Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Anemia Without Blood Transfusion

A concise outline of clinical management strategies for managing acute upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding without allogeneic blood transfusion. This document contains links to more than 500 authoritative references in peer-reviewed medical literature.


The medical section of jw.org is designed as an informational resource primarily for use by clinicians and other health-care professionals. It provides neither medical advice nor treatment recommendations and does not substitute for an appropriately qualified health-care provider. The clinical literature cited is not published by Jehovah’s Witnesses, but it outlines transfusion-alternative strategies that might be considered. It is the responsibility of each qualified health-care provider to maintain awareness of new information, discuss options for care, and assist patients in making choices in accord with their medical condition, wishes, values, and beliefs. Not all listed strategies are appropriate or acceptable to all patients.

Patients: Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health-care provider regarding medical conditions or treatments. Check with a doctor if you suspect you are ill.

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