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Jehovah’s Witnesses


Bioethics and Law (General)

Beneficence and Transfusion Alternative Strategies

Experience of a network of transfusion coordinators for blood conservation (Ontario Transfusion Coordinators [ONTraC]).

Freedman J, Luke K, Escobar M, Vernich L, Chiavetta JA.

Source‎: Transfusion 2008;48(2):237-50.

Indexed‎: PubMed 18005329

Are transfusions overrated? Surgical outcome of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Kitchens CS.

Source‎: Am J Med 1993;94(2):117-9.

Indexed‎: PubMed 8430707

Impact of a blood conservation program on 30-day morbidity and mortality: a cohort study.

Ramanan B, Burns TL, Sugimoto JT, Forse RA.

Source‎: J Surg Res 2014;187(1):343-9.

Indexed‎: PubMed 24189177

DOI‎: 10.1016/j.jss.2013.10.005

Alternatives to blood transfusion.

Spahn DR, Goodnough LT.

Source‎: Lancet 2013;381(9880):1855-65.

Indexed‎: PubMed 23706802

DOI‎: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60808-9

Outcome of patients who refuse transfusion after cardiac surgery: a natural experiment with severe blood conservation.

Pattakos G, Koch CG, Brizzio ME, Batizy LH, Sabik JF, Blackstone EH, Lauer MS.

Source‎: Arch Intern Med 2012;172(15):1154-60.

Indexed‎: PubMed 22751620

DOI‎: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.2449

An audit of gynaecological procedures in Jehovah's Witnesses in an inner city hospital.

Massiah N, Abdelmagied A, Samuels D, Evans F, Okolo S, Yoong W.

Source‎: J Obstet Gynaecol 2006;26(2):149-51.

Indexed‎: PubMed 16483975

Neurosurgical procedures in Jehovah's Witnesses: an increased risk?

Suess S, Suess O, Brock M.

Source‎: Neurosurgery 2001;49(2):266-72.

Indexed‎: PubMed 11504102

The medical section of is designed as an informational resource primarily for use by clinicians and other health-care professionals. It provides neither medical advice nor treatment recommendations and does not substitute for an appropriately qualified health-care provider. The clinical literature cited is not published by Jehovah’s Witnesses, but it outlines transfusion-alternative strategies that might be considered. It is the responsibility of each qualified health-care provider to maintain awareness of new information, discuss options for care, and assist patients in making choices in accord with their medical condition, wishes, values, and beliefs. Not all listed strategies are appropriate or acceptable to all patients.

Patients: Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health-care provider regarding medical conditions or treatments. Check with a doctor if you suspect you are ill.

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