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Jehovah’s Witnesses


Bioethics and Law (General)

Respect for Autonomy and Informed Consent (Choice) in Medical Treatment

Law, ethics, religion, and blood management.

Seeber P, Shander A.

Source‎: Basics of Blood Management, Second Edition. Chichester, West Sussex, [UK]; Wiley-Blackwell; 2013. p. 285-96.

Indexed‎: ISBN 978-0-470-67070-5

Code of Practice for the Surgical Management of Jehovah's Witnesses.

The Royal College of Surgeons of England.

Source‎: London, UK; Council of The Royal College of Surgeons of England; 2002.

Legal and ethical issues in blood transfusion.

Desborough MJ, Murphy MF.

Source‎: Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2013;74(1):C2-4.

Indexed‎: PubMed 23593671

Refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses and the patient's right to self-determination.

Ariga T.

Source‎: Leg Med (Tokyo) 2009;11 Suppl 1:S138-40.

Indexed‎: PubMed 19272827

DOI‎: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.02.005

The ethics of blood management.

Sazama K.

Source‎: Vox Sang 2007;92(2):95-102.

Indexed‎: PubMed 17298570

Why "bloodless medicine" and how should we do it?

Kickler TS.

Source‎: Transfusion 2003;43(5):550-1.

Indexed‎: PubMed 12702172

Transfusion Alternative Health Care—Meeting Patient Needs and Rights.

Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania

Source‎: Transfusion Alternatives-Documentary Series, 2004.

Management of Anaesthesia For Jehovah's Witnesses. Second Edition.

Ward ME, Dick J, Greenwell S, O’Sullivan E, Verma R, Whitaker DK.

Source‎: London, UK: The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland; 2005.

The medical section of is designed as an informational resource primarily for use by clinicians and other health-care professionals. It provides neither medical advice nor treatment recommendations and does not substitute for an appropriately qualified health-care provider. The clinical literature cited is not published by Jehovah’s Witnesses, but it outlines transfusion-alternative strategies that might be considered. It is the responsibility of each qualified health-care provider to maintain awareness of new information, discuss options for care, and assist patients in making choices in accord with their medical condition, wishes, values, and beliefs. Not all listed strategies are appropriate or acceptable to all patients.

Patients: Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health-care provider regarding medical conditions or treatments. Check with a doctor if you suspect you are ill.

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