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ENYỌN̄-UKPEME 2009-11-01

Bible—N̄wọrọnda Mbụk Oro Aban̄ade Nte N̄wed Ọkọbọhọde Odu

Bible—N̄wọrọnda Mbụk Oro Aban̄ade Nte N̄wed Ọkọbọhọde Odu

BIBLE edi n̄wed oro ẹsuande ẹkan—ẹmesasuan se ibede 4,800,000,000. Ẹma ẹmịn̄ se ibede 64,600,000 ke 2007 ikpọn̄. Man ọfiọk se oro ọwọrọde, kere ban̄a emi: Ẹkemịn̄ n̄wed mbụk oro akanyamade akan isua oro idem miliọn 12 ke akpa ini oro ẹkemịn̄de ke United States.

Edi ẹmedomo ndisobo Bible mfep toto ke ntọn̄ọ. Ẹmekpan ẹnyụn̄ ẹfọp enye, ẹfịk ẹnyụn̄ ẹwot mbon oro ẹkeyomde ndikabade enye ke kpukpru emana. Edi kiet ke otu akakan n̄kpọ oro ẹkeyomde ndisobo Bible mfep ikedịghe ikan̄-ikan̄ ukọbọ, edi ekedi emi enye akatahade sụn̄sụn̄. Ntak-a?

Bible edi n̄kpri n̄wed 66 emi ẹtan̄de ẹdian kiet, ndien nditọ Israel ẹkewet mbon oro ẹbịghide ẹkan ke se ibede isua 3,000 idahaemi. Ata akpa mbon oro ẹkewetde Bible ye mbon oro ẹkefiakde ẹsion̄o enye ẹwet ẹkewet etop emi Abasi ọkọnọde odudu spirit ẹda ẹwet mi ke mme n̄kpọ uwet n̄kpọ oro ẹkemede ndibiara, utọ nte n̄kukịp ye ikpaunam. Owo ikwe kan̄a ndomokiet ke otu ata akpa Bible oro ẹkewetde. Edi ẹmekụt ediwak tọsịn n̄kpri n̄wed Bible oro ẹkesion̄ode ẹwet ke eset. Utak-usụhọ kiet ke otu n̄wed emi edi Gospel John, ndien inen̄ekede ibịghi tọn̄ọ apostle John ekewet esiemmọ tutu esịm ini emi ẹkesion̄ode enye emi ẹkụtde mi ẹwet.

“Ẹwet mme n̄wed Bible Usem Hebrew [Akani Testament] ata ukem ukem nte eketiede, ndien n̄wed usem Greek m̀mê Latin eset ndomokiet ifetke-fet nditie ntre.”—Prọfesọ Julio Trebolle Barrera

Ntak emi mme Bible eset oro ẹdude ẹdisịm emi ẹdide ata n̄wọrọnda n̄kpọ? Ndien ndi etop oro odude ke Bible eyomfịn ẹnen̄ede ẹdi ukem ye se akpa mme andiwet Bible ẹkewetde?

Nso Iketịbe Inọ N̄kani N̄wed Eken?

Bible ndidu ndisịm emi edi ata n̄kpọ ndyọ ke ikerede iban̄a se iketịbede inọ mme n̄wed mme idụt oro ẹkedude ke eyo nditọ Israel. Ke uwụtn̄kpọ, mbon Phoenicia ẹkedi mbọhọidụn̄ Israel ke n̄kpọ nte isua 3,000 emi ẹkebede. Mme owo emi ẹkesinyamde urua mmọn̄ mmọn̄ mi ẹma ẹda ido uwet n̄kpọ mmọ ẹsịm kpukpru ebiet ke mbọhọ Mediterranean. Mmọ ẹma ẹnyam n̄ko n̄kukịp etieti ẹnọ mbon Egypt ye Greece. Kpa ye oro, National Geographic etịn̄ ntem aban̄a mbon Phoenicia: “Mme n̄wed mmọ, emi ẹkewetde akpan akpan ke n̄kukịp, ẹma ẹdiahade—anam n̄kukụre se ifiọkde iban̄a mbon Phoenicia ẹto ikọ asari emi mme asua mmọ ẹwetde. Okposụkedi emi ẹdọhọde ke mbon Phoenicia ẹma ẹnyene akpakịp n̄wed, kpukpru ẹma ẹtak anyan ini ko.”

Nso kaban̄a mme n̄wed Egypt eset? Ẹnen̄ede ẹfiọk mme ndise oro mmọ ẹkekapde ẹnyụn̄ ẹwetde ke mme ibibene temple ye ke mme ebiet en̄wen. Ẹfiọk n̄ko ke nditọ Egypt ẹketọn̄ọ ndida n̄kukịp n̄wet n̄kpọ. Edi K. A. Kitchen, ekpepn̄kpọ mban̄a Egypt eset, etịn̄ ntem aban̄a mme n̄kpọ oro nditọ Egypt ẹkewetde ke n̄kukịp: “Ẹdọhọ ke n̄kpọ nte usụkkiet ke otu kpukpru n̄wed n̄kukịp duop oro ẹkewetde ke n̄kpọ nte  isua 3,000 emi ẹkebede tutu osụhọde esịm eyo mbon Greece ye Rome ẹma ẹdiahade ẹma.”

Nso kaban̄a mme n̄kpọ oro mbon Rome ẹkewetde ke n̄kukịp? Kere ban̄a uwụtn̄kpọ kiet emi. N̄wed oro Roman Military Records on Papyrus, ọdọhọ ke etie nte ẹkesikpe mbonekọn̄ Rome okụk ikata ke isua, ndien ke ẹkesiwet se ẹkpede mmọ ke n̄wed n̄kukịp. Ẹdọhọ ke ẹma ẹwet n̄wed ukpeokụk 225,000,000 ke n̄kpọ nte ufan̄ isua 300, ọtọn̄ọde ke eyo Augustus (27 M.E.N.–14 E.N.) tutu esịm eyo Diocletian (284-305 E.N.). Ifan̄ ẹdu ẹdisịm emi? Ẹkụt iba kpọt emi ẹkemede ndikot.

Ntak emi ata ibat ibat kpọt ke otu n̄kpọ eset oro ẹkewetde ke n̄kukịp ẹdude ẹdisịm emi? Mme utọ n̄kpọ uwet n̄kpọ nte n̄kukịp ye ikpaunam ẹsisọp ẹdiahade ke mbịtmbịt ebiet. The Anchor Bible Dictionary ọdọhọ ete: “Ke ntak mfụt, mme n̄kpọ oro ẹkewetde ke n̄kukịp ke eyo oko [n̄kpọ nte isua 3,000 emi ẹkebede] ẹsidu ẹbịghi ke ini ẹbonde mmọ ke desat ye ke abaitiat m̀mê ke ufọk.”

Nso Kaban̄a Se Ẹwetde ke Bible?

Ẹkewet mme akpasarade n̄wed Bible ke mme ukem n̄kpọ uwet n̄kpọ oro ẹkemede ndidiahade, oro mbon Phoenicia, Egypt, ye Rome ẹkedade ẹwet n̄kpọ. Ntak ndien emi mme n̄kpọ oro ẹwetde ke Bible ẹdude ẹdisịm emi tutu enye edidi n̄wed oro ẹsuande ẹkan? Prọfesọ James L. Kugel ọnọ ntak kiet. Enye ọdọhọ ke ẹma ẹsion̄o se ẹkewetde ke Bible ẹfiak ẹwet “ata ediwak ini idem ke eyo emi ẹkewetde Bible.”

Ndi mme edikabade Bible eyomfịn ẹnen̄ede ẹdi ukem ye mbon oro ẹkesion̄ode ẹwet ke eset? Prọfesọ Julio Trebolle Barrera, emi edide kiet ke otu ntaifiọk emi ẹkedụn̄ọrede ẹnyụn̄ ẹsion̄ode uwetn̄kpọ eset emi ẹdiọn̄ọde nte Mme Ikpan̄wed Inyan̄ Inụn̄ ẹwet, ọdọhọ ete: “Ẹwet mme n̄wed Bible Usem Hebrew ata ukem ukem nte eketiede, ndien n̄wed usem Greek m̀mê Latin eset ndomokiet ifetke-fet nditie ntre.” F. F. Bruce, eyen ukpepn̄kpọ Bible oro ẹkponode, ọdọhọ ete: “Mme n̄wed Obufa Testament nnyịn ẹnen̄ede ẹnyene uyarade ẹkan ediwak n̄wed eset, edi akananam baba owo kiet inyeneke eyịghe iban̄a mme n̄wed eset oro.” Enye adian do ete: “Ekpedi Obufa Testament edi n̄wed ererimbot, ata ediwak owo ẹkpeda enye nte ata edinen n̄wed.” Ke akpanikọ, Bible edi n̄wọrọnda n̄wed. Ndi afo emesifak ifet okot enye kpukpru usen?—1 Peter 1:24, 25.

N̄wed Abasi Usem Hebrew, m̀mê Akani Testament, 6,000 emi ẹkewetde ke ubọk ẹsụk ẹdodu tutu emi, ndien n̄kpọ nte N̄wed Abasi Usem Greek, m̀mê Obufa Testament, 5,000 ẹdu

 

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