Dzo kpo yi emenuwo dzi

Dzo kpo yi emenuawo dzi

Mari—Blema Dzogbe Dugã Kpɔŋusẽ La

Mari—Blema Dzogbe Dugã Kpɔŋusẽ La

 Mari​—Blema Dzogbe Dugã Kpɔŋusẽ La

“DZIDZƆ sɔŋ koe yɔ menye esi megbɔ va ɖo nye xɔdɔme me le zã ma me esi mía kple nye dɔwɔhatiwo míeyi ɖado dzidzɔ ɖe mía ɖokuiwo ŋu le nusiwo ŋu míeke ɖo megbe.” Alea Franse blematomenukula André Parrot gblɔ enye si. Le ƒe 1934 ƒe January me, le Tell Hariri la, Parrot kple eŋumewo ke ɖe ame kpakpɛ aɖe ŋu le tomenukuku me le afisi te ɖe Abu Kemal du sue si le Frat-tɔsisi ƒe goawo dzi ŋu le Siria, si dzi woŋlɔ ɖo be: “Lamgi-Mari, Mari-fia, amesi nye trɔ̃ si woyɔna be Enlil la ƒe nunɔlagã.” Dzi dzɔ wo ale gbegbe le nusiwo ŋu woke ɖo la ta.

Woke ɖe Mari-dugã la ŋu mlɔeba! Viɖe kae wòanye na Biblia-srɔ̃viwo?

Nukatae Míatsɔ Ðe Le Eme?

Togbɔ be wonya nu le Mari-dua ƒe anyinɔnɔ ŋu to nuŋlɔɖiwo me hã la, womenya enɔƒe tututu o ɣeyiɣi didi aɖe. Sumertɔwo ƒe agbalẽŋlɔlawo gblɔ be Mari nye afisi fiaƒome aɖe ɖu dzi tsoe eye ɖewohĩ woɖu Mesopotamia katã dzi kpɔ. Wotso Mari-dua ɖe Frat-tɔsisia ƒe goawo dzi wòsɔ nyuie ɖe afisi asitsamɔwo do go le hetsiã Persia-ƒukɔme kple Asiria, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, kpakple Mediterranea Ƒuta mɔwo ɖekae. Wotsɔa nuwo abe ati, gakpo, kple kpe—siwo katã nye nusiwo vena vevie le Mesopotamia—va toa dua me. Adzɔ siwo woxɔna ɖe nuawo ta na Mari zu kesinɔdu  ale gbegbe be wòkpɔ ŋusẽ ɖe nutoame dzi. Gake esi Sargon si tso Akkad va ɖu Siria dzi le aʋa me la, dua ƒe ŋusẽkpɔkpɔa nu yi.

Le Sargon ƒe aʋadziɖuɖua megbe la, asrafo vovovowo ɖu fia le Mari-dua me anɔ ƒe 300. Woƒe dziɖuɖuwo gana dugã la gate dzidzedze kpɔkpɔ. Ke hã le fia mamlɛtɔ, Zimri-Lim, ƒe dziɖuɣi la, Mari ƒe ŋusẽ dzi va ɖe kpɔtɔ kura kloe. Zimri-Lim te kpɔ be yeado ŋusẽ yeƒe fiaɖuƒea to asrafowo ƒe aʋadziɖuɖuwo, nubablawo, kple srɔ̃ɖekadodowo me. Gake le ƒe 1760 D.M.Ŋ. me la, Fia Hammurabi si tso Babilon ɖu dugã la dzi le aʋa me eye wòtsrɔ̃e, esia he nusi Parrot yɔ be “ŋkuʋuʋu deŋgɔawo dometɔ ɖeka le blema xexeame” la va nuwuwui.

Esime Hammurabi ƒe asrafoha tsrɔ̃ Mari la, womenya kura be nu bubu aɖeke ava do tso eme si anye kpekpeɖeŋu gã na tomenukulawo kple ŋutinyaŋlɔlawo egbea o. Esi wogbã gli si wotsɔ anyikpe siwo womeme le dzo me hafi ɖo o la ƒu anyi la, gli gbagbãwo tsyɔ xɔ aɖewo dzi le teƒe aɖewo meta 5, ale wona nuwo tsi anyi dedie eye naneke megblẽ nu le wo ŋu o ƒe geɖe. Tomenukulawo ke ɖe afisiwo gbedoxɔ kple fiasãwo ƒe glikpowo le ŋu, eye woke ɖe asinudɔwɔwɔwo kple nuŋlɔɖi akpe geɖe siwo na míenya nu tso blematɔwo ƒe ŋkuʋuʋu ŋu la hã ŋuti.

Nukatae míetsɔ ɖe le Mari ƒe dudowo me ɖo? Bu ɣeyiɣi siwo me blemafofo Abraham nɔ anyigba dzi ŋu kpɔ? Wodzi Abraham le ƒe 2018 D.M.Ŋ., si nye ƒe 352 le Tsiɖɔɖɔa megbe. Eyama nye dzidzime ewolia tso Noa dzi. Le Mawu ƒe sedede nu la, Abraham ʋu tso wo dedu, Ur me, yi Xaran. Le ƒe 1943 D.M.Ŋ. me esime Abraham xɔ ƒe 75 la, eʋu tso Xaran yi Kanaan-nyigba dzi. Italiatɔ tomenukula Paolo Matthiae gblɔ be: “Abraham ʋu tso Ur yi Yerusalem [le Kanaan] le Mari dugã la ƒe ɣeyiɣiawo me.” Eyata viɖe le keke ɖe Mari ŋu me elabena ate ŋu akpe ɖe mía ŋu míakpɔ amesiwo dome Mawu subɔla wɔnuteƒe Abraham nɔ le susume. *Mose I, 11:10–12:4.

Nukawoe Wokpɔ le Dudoa Me?

Mawusubɔsubɔ xɔ aƒe ɖe Mari abe alesi wònɔ le Mesopotamia ƒe teƒe bubuwoe ene. Woxɔe se be enye amegbetɔ ƒe agbanɔamedzi be wòasubɔ mawuawo. Wobiaa gbe mawuawo ɣesiaɣi hafi wɔa nyametsotso veviwo. Tomenukulawo ke ɖe gbedoxɔ ade ƒe glikpowo ŋu. Wo dometɔ aɖewoe nye Dzatawo ƒe Gbedoxɔ (si ame aɖewo xɔ se be enye Dagan, alo Dagon si woyɔ le Biblia me ƒe gbedoxɔ) kple Ishtar, vidzidzimawunɔ ƒe gbedoxɔ, tsɔ kpe ɖe ɣemawu Shamash ƒe gbedoxɔ ŋu. Le gɔmedzedzea la, mawu-kpakpɛawo nɔ gbedoxɔawo me eye wosaa vɔ hedoa gbe ɖa na wo le afima. Wo subɔlawo daa woa ŋutɔwo ƒe nɔnɔme wɔwɔe siwo ɖo nukomo ɖe bentsiwo dzi wonɔa gbe dom ɖa le gbedoxɔa me kple susu be yewoƒe nɔnɔme wɔwɔeawo didia tadedeagua ɖe edzi. Parrot  gblɔ be: “Le nyateƒe me la, ame kpakpɛa nye mawua subɔla teƒenɔla, abe alesi bosomikaɖi le na Katolikotɔ egbea ene, gake ame kpakpɛ tɔa de ŋgɔ wu.”

Nusi ŋu woke ɖo si wɔ dɔ ɖe ame dzi wu ɖesiaɖe le Tell Hariri ƒe dudowo mee nye fiasã gã aɖe ƒe glikpo si wotsɔ fia mamlɛtɔ si nɔ eme, si nye Fia Zimri-Lim ƒe ŋkɔ na. Franse tomenukula Louis-Hugues Vincent ɖɔ fiasã la be enye “blema Ɣedzeƒetɔwo ƒe atsyɔ̃ɖonu.” Eƒe lolome le hekta eve kple afã, eye xɔ 300 ye le eme tsɔ kpe ɖe xɔxɔnuwo ŋu. Le blema ɣeyiɣiawo gɔ̃ hã me la, wobu fiasã sia be enye xexeame ƒe nukunuwo dometɔ ɖeka. Georges Roux gblɔ tso eŋu le eƒe agbalẽ si nye Ancient Iraq me be: “Exɔ ŋkɔ ale gbegbe be Ugarit-fia si le Siria-ƒuta mehe ɖe megbe kura le nana be via nazɔ mɔ kilometa 600 ayi ɖakpɔ ‘Zimri-Lim ƒe aƒe’ la ɖa o.”

Ele na tsaɖilawo be woato fiasã sẽŋua ƒe agbo ɖeka si ƒe axawo dzi mɔ̃ kɔkɔwo le la nu hafi aɖo xɔxɔnu gã la. Mari ƒe fia mamlɛtɔ, Zimri-Lim nɔa fiazi dzi le kpo kɔkɔe aɖe dzi, ekpɔa asrafoha, asitsanyawo, kple woa kple dukɔ bubuwo dome kadodowo gbɔ; etsoa afia; eye wòxɔa amedzrowo kple amedɔdɔwo hã. Dzeƒewo nɔa anyi na amedzrowo eye fia la tua aglo na wo edziedzi kple wein kpakple nuɖuɖu nyuiwo. Nuɖuɖua ƒe ɖewoe nye nyilã memea, yiyia, alo ɖaɖaa, alẽlã, sẽlã, tɔmelã, alo koklolã—wotsɔa woa kple ayotadi kple amagbewo kpakple notsibabla vovovowo ɖoa woƒe akɔme. Numeɖenuwo nyea atikutsetse siwo wogbe yeye alo ƒuƒuawo alo esiwo wode suklii tsɔ kpe ɖe akpɔnɔ siwo wome le nugoe atsyãtɔ vovovowo  me ŋu. Wonana biya alo wein amedzroawo be woatsɔ atsi woƒe tsikɔwuame nui.

Wolé fɔ ɖe fiasãa me ƒe dzadzɛnyenye hã ŋu ale gbegbe. Woke ɖe tsileƒe siwo me tsilegba siwo wotsɔ tsu mee kpakple afɔdzideƒe siwo dzi wotsyɔa akɔ ɖo la ŋu. Wosi aŋɔ ɖe xɔawo ƒe gliwo gɔme kple anyigba siaa be wòakpɔ wo ta. Wona tsi ƒoɖiwo toa anyikpedowo me, eye pɔmpi siwo wotsɔ anyi me hesi aŋɔ na, siwo axɔ ƒe 3,500 lɔƒo la, gale dedie le afima. Esi fiasãa me nyɔnu etɔ̃ dze dɔ sesẽ aɖe la woda wo ɖe mɔxeɖenu sesẽ aɖe te. Ele be woaɖe nyɔnu si le dɔ lém alea ɖe aga be magakaka dɔvɔ̃a o. “Ame aɖeke mano nu le eƒe kplu nu o, womaɖu nu le eƒe kplɔ̃ ŋu, alo abɔbɔ nɔ eƒe zikpui dzi o.”

Nukae Míate Ŋu Asrɔ̃ tso Blemanuŋlɔɖi Siawo Me?

Parrot kple eŋumewo ke ɖe kpe 20,000 siwo dzi nuŋlɔɖiwo le le Akkadgbe me ŋu. Kpe siawo dzi nuŋlɔɖiawo nye lɛtawo, dukplɔɖoɖowo, kpakple ganyawo. Ne woma nuŋlɔɖi siawo ɖe akpa etɔ̃ me la, akpa ɖeka koe wote ŋu ta. Ke hã akpa ɖeka sia gɔ̃ hã nye babla 28 sɔŋ. Viɖe kawoe le wo ŋu na mí? Jean-Claude Margueron, amesi nye Mari Tomenukukudɔa dzikpɔla gblɔ be: “Esime míekpɔ ke ɖe Mari ƒe blemanuŋlɔɖiawo ŋu haɖe o la, míenya nu boo aɖeke ku ɖe Mesopotamia kple Siria ƒe blemaŋutinyawo, ɖoɖowo, kple woƒe gbesiagbe gbenɔnɔ le ƒe 2000 D.M.Ŋ. megbe teti ŋu la ŋuti o. Nuŋlɔɖi siawo va wɔe be míate ŋu aɖɔ nuŋlɔɖi xoxo siwo mesɔ o la ɖo ahana woase esiwo womenya o.” Parrot gblɔ be, nuŋlɔɖiawo “na míekpɔ ɖekanyenye wɔnuku si le amesiwo woyɔ kple nusiwo Nubabla Xoxoa gblɔ na mí ku ɖe Blemafofoawo ŋu dome.”

Azɔ hã nuŋlɔɖi siwo le kpe dzi wofɔ le Mari la na Biblia me nya aɖewo me kɔ na mí. Le kpɔɖeŋu me, kpe dzi nuŋlɔɖiawo ɖee fia be ame ƒe futɔ srɔ̃wo kple ahiãviwo xɔxɔ “nye fiawo ƒe nuwɔna si yia edzi vevie ɣemaɣi.” Axitofel, amegɔmezɔla la ƒe aɖaŋu si wòɖo na Fia Dawid ƒe vi, Absalom be wòadɔ fofoa ƒe ahiãwo gbɔ la menye nu yeye o.—Samuel II, 16:21, 22.

Wowɔ tomenukukudɔ 41 le Tell Hariri tso keke ƒe 1933 me ke. Ke hã vaseɖe fifia la, hekta 8 koe woku le Mari ƒe lolome si nye hekta 110 la ŋu. Edze ƒã be nudodzidzɔname geɖewo gali siwo ŋu woava ke ɖo le Mari, blema dzogbe dugã kpɔŋusẽ la me.

[Etenuŋɔŋlɔ]

^ mm. 8 Anɔ eme godoo hã be Yudatɔ siwo wokplɔ yi aboyome le Babilon, le Yerusalem tsɔtsrɔ̃ megbe le ƒe 607 D.M.Ŋ. me la zɔ to Mari-dudoa ŋu.

[Anyigbatata si le axa 10]

(Edze nyuie le agbalẽa ŋutɔ me)

Persia-ƒukɔme

Ur

MESOPOTAMIA

Frat-tɔsisi

MARI

ASIRIA

Xaran

ANATOLIA

KANAAN

Yerusalem

Mediterranea-ƒu (Ƒu Gã La)

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 11]

Mari-fia, Iahdun-Lim ƒo adegbe le eƒe xɔtudɔwo ŋu le nuŋlɔɖi sia me

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 11]

Lamgi-Mari ƒe ame kpakpɛ sia si ŋu woke ɖo wɔe be wonya afisi tututu Mari nɔ

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 12]

Ebih-Il, amesi nye Mari dumegã aɖe le gbe dom ɖa

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 12]

Fiasã me kpo, anye afisi mawunɔ aɖe ƒe kpakpɛa nɔ

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 12]

Mari ƒe anyiglãgo siwo ɖee fia be womeme anyikpeawo le dzo me o

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 12]

Fiasã me tsileƒe aɖe

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 13]

Naram-Sin ƒe Mari dziɖuɖu le aʋa me ŋuti nuŋlɔɖikpe

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 13]

Woke ɖe kpe 20,000 siwo dzi blema nuŋlɔɖiwo le ŋu le fiasã la me

[Nɔnɔmetata Tsoƒe si le axa 10]

© Mission archéologique française de Tell Hariri - Mari (Syrie)

[Picture Credit Lines on page 11]

Nuŋlɔɖi: Musée du Louvre, Paris; ame kpakpɛ: © Mission archéologique française de Tell Hariri - Mari (Syrie)

[Picture Credit Lines on page 12]

Ame kpakpɛ: Musée du Louvre, Paris; kpokɔkɔ kple tsileƒe: © Mission archéologique française de Tell Hariri - Mari (Syrie)

[Picture Credit Lines on page 13]

Aʋadziɖuɖu nuŋlɔɖiwo: Musée du Louvre, Paris; fiasā ƒe glikpo: © Mission archéologique française de Tell Hariri - Mari (Syrie)