Dzo kpo yi emenuwo dzi

Dzo kpo yi emenuawo dzi

Tertullian ƒe Nɔnɔme Wɔmoya La

Tertullian ƒe Nɔnɔme Wɔmoya La

 Tertullian ƒe Nɔnɔme Wɔmoya La

‘ƑOMEDODO kae le Kristotɔ kple xexemenunyala dome? alo amesi doa vlo nyateƒea, kple amesi ɖɔnɛ ɖo hefianɛ dome? Ðekawɔwɔ kae le Suku kɔkɔ kple Sɔlemeha la dome?’ Ƒe alafa evelia kple etɔ̃lia M.Ŋ. me nuŋlɔla Tertullian ye bia gbetɔamenya siawo. Eva nye “Sɔlemehaa ƒe ŋutinya kple nufiafia siwo wofia le eŋɔlime la ƒe akpa gãtɔ ŋlɔla xɔŋkɔwo dometɔ ɖeka.” Enya nu tso mawusubɔsubɔ ƒe ŋutinya ɖesiaɖe kloe ŋu.

Ðewohĩ nusi wotsɔ nya Tertullian nyuie wue nye eƒe nya siwo trɔ gbo gake henye nyateƒe la gbɔgblɔ, si dometɔ aɖewo enye esiawo be: “Mawu lolona ŋutɔ, ne Ele sue.” “Ele be woaxɔ [Mawu Vi ƒe kua] dzi ase godoo elabena enye bometsinya.” “Woɖi [Yesu] eye wòfɔ ake; kakaɖedzi le eŋu, elabena manya wɔ o.”

Nu geɖe ku ɖe Tertullian ŋu siwo wɔ mo yaa wu eƒe nyagbɔgblɔwo ko. Togbɔ be eɖo tame be yeƒe agbalẽwo naʋli nyateƒea ta ahado sɔlemehaa kple eƒe nufiafiawo ɖe dzi hã la, eva do vlo nyateƒea boŋ. Akpa vevi si wòwɔ le Kristodukɔa me la va zu nufiafia si dzi nuŋlɔla siwo kplɔe ɖo tu Mawuɖekaetɔ̃ nufiafiaa ɖo. Be míase alesi esia dzɔe me nyuie la, mina míalé ŋku ɖe Tertullian ŋu vie gbã.

“Eƒe Nyawo Metia Ame O”

Nu ʋɛ aɖe ko wonya le Tertullian ƒe agbenɔnɔ ŋu. Agbalẽnyala geɖe lɔ̃ ɖe edzi be wodzii le ƒe 160 M.Ŋ. me lɔƒo le Carthage, le Dziehe Afrika. Anɔ eme be enya agbalẽ nyuie eye wònya xexemenunyala xɔŋkɔ siwo nɔ anyi le eŋɔlime la nyuie. Nusi anya na Kristotɔnyenye nyo eŋu enye alesi amesiwo gblɔna be Kristotɔwoe yewonye la lɔ̃na faa be yewoaku ɖe woƒe xɔse ta. Ebia le Kristotɔwo ƒe xɔsetaku ŋu be: “Amekae li si ne ede ŋugble le eŋu la meʋãnɛ be yeaku nusi gbɔ wotso me akpɔ o? amekae li ne eku eme vɔ̃ la maxɔ míaƒe nufiafia o?”

Esi Tertullian zu amesi bua eɖokui Kristotɔe megbe la, eva zu nuŋlɔla bibi aɖe si gblɔa nyawo kpokploe, eye wowɔa dɔ ɖe ame dzi ŋutɔ. Agbalẽ si nye The Fathers of the Church gblɔ be: “Ŋutete aɖe si mebɔ ɖe mawunyaŋununyalawo dome o lae le esi. Eƒe nyawo metia ame o.” Agbalẽnyala aɖe gblɔ be: “Nya kpuiwo gbɔgblɔ ma Tertullian wu nyafɔkpe legbewo zazã eye eƒe nya kpuiawo gɔme nyasena wu eƒe numeɖeɖewo. Ðewohĩ esia tae woyɔa eƒe nyawo edziedzi evɔ womeyɔa eƒe nya legbewo ya edziedzi o.”

Le Kristotɔnyenye Taʋiʋli Me

Tertullian ƒe nuŋɔŋlɔ si xɔ ŋkɔ wu enye Apology, si wobuna be enye amesiwo gblɔna be Kristotɔwo yewonye la taʋligbalẽ wɔdɔɖeamedzi si ƒo ɖesiaɖe ta dometɔ ɖeka. Woŋlɔe le ɣeyiɣi si nuvlowɔha aʋatsodzixɔselawo dzea Kristotɔwo dzi edziedzi la me. Tertullian va ʋli Kristotɔ siawo ta hetsi tre ɖe bometsinu siwo wowɔna ɖe wo ŋu ŋuti. Egblɔ be: “[Tsitretsiɖeŋulawo] susuna be Kristotɔwo gbɔe afɔku kple dzɔgbevɔ̃e ɖesiaɖe si vaa amewo dzi la tso. . . . Ne Nile-tɔsisi la metsa ɖo agblewo dzi o, ne yame ƒe nɔnɔme metrɔ o, ne anyigba ʋuʋu, dɔ  to, dɔvɔ̃ do la—wogblɔna enumake be: ‘Mitsɔ Kristotɔawo na dzatawo!’ ”

Togbɔ be wotsɔa nya ɖe Kristotɔwo ŋu edziedzi be womewɔa nuteƒe na Dukɔa o hã la, Tertullian dze agbagba be yeaɖee afia be woawoe nye dumevi siwo dzi woaka ɖo wu le nutoa me. Esi wòhe eƒe tsitretsiɖeŋulawo ƒe susu yi agbagba siwo nugbeɖolawo dze be yewoamu dziɖuɖua dzi megbe la, ena wonya be trɔ̃subɔlawoe amesiawo nye ke menye Kristotɔwoe o. Tertullian na wonya be ne wowu Kristotɔwo la, Dukɔa ŋue nu gblẽ le boŋ.

Tertullian ƒe agbalẽ bubuwo ƒo nu tso Kristotɔ ƒe agbenɔnɔ ŋu. Le kpɔɖeŋu me, le eƒe agbalẽ si nye On the Shows (Modzakaɖeɖe) me la, Tertullian xlɔ̃ nu ku ɖe modzakaɖeƒe aɖewo, trɔ̃subɔla ƒe fefewo kple fefewɔƒe aɖewo dede ŋu. Anye be haa me tɔ yeye aɖewo mekpɔ vovototo aɖeke le Biblia sɔsrɔ̃ ƒe kpekpe kple trɔ̃subɔlawo ƒe fefewɔƒewo dede dome o. Le Tertullian ƒe agbagbadzedze be yeana woabu tame ayi ŋgɔ me la, eŋlɔ be: “Ŋunyɔnu ka gbegbe enye esi wònye be woatso le Mawu ƒe gbedoxɔ me ayi abosam tɔ me—atso gbɔgbɔmedɔwɔnawo gbɔ ayi lãnuwɔƒe.” Egblɔ be: “Nuwɔna si nètsri la, mele be nàɖo to wo o.”

Edo Vlo Nyateƒe la Esime Wòle Eta Ʋlim

Tertullian dze eƒe nyati si ƒe tanyae nye Against Praxeas (Tsitretsitsi ɖe Praxeas Ŋu) gɔme be: “Abosam tsi tre ɖe nyateƒea ŋu hexe mɔ ɖe enu le mɔ geɖe nu. Ɣeaɖewoɣi la eƒe tameɖoɖoe nye be yeato nyateƒea taʋiʋli me atsrɔ̃e.” Womenya amesi tututu Praxeas nye le nyati sia me o, gake Tertullian tsɔ nya ɖe eƒe nufiafia si ku ɖe Mawu kple Kristo ŋu la ŋu. Ebu Praxeas be enye Satana ƒe dɔtsɔla si le agbagba dzem be yeagblẽ Kristotɔnyenye me le adzame.

Nya vevi aɖe si fɔ ɖe te le amesiwo bu wo ɖokui Kristotɔwo dome ɣemaɣie nye ƒomedodo si le Mawu kple Kristo dome. Esesẽ na wo dometɔ aɖewo, vevietɔ amesiwo tso Hela, be woada asi ɖe Mawu ɖeka dzixɔse kple akpa si Yesu wɔ abe Xɔla kple Ðela ene la dzi. Praxeas te kpɔ be yeakpɔ woƒe kuxia gbɔ to wo fiafia me be ɖeko Yesu nye Fofo la ƒe ɖeɖefia bubu ale be vovototo aɖeke mele Fofo la kple Vi la dome o. Nufiafia sia, si woyɔ be modalism (ame etɔ̃ ƒe ɖekanyenye), gblɔ be Mawu ɖe eɖokui fia “abe Fofo la ene le Nuwɔwɔ kple Sea tsɔtsɔ na me, abe Vi la ene le Yesu Kristo me, eye abe Gbɔgbɔ Kɔkɔe la ene le Kristo ƒe dziƒoyiyi megbe.”

Tertullian ɖee fia be Ŋɔŋlɔawo gblɔ vovototo si le Fofo la kple Vi la dome eme kɔ nyuie. Le nya yɔyɔ tso Korintotɔwo I, 15:27, 28 megbe la, ena wose egɔme be: “Ehiã be—Amesi tsɔ (nuwo katã) de ame te, kple Amesi te wotsɔ wo dee la—nanye Ame vovo eve.” Tertullian he susu yi Yesu ŋutɔ ƒe nya dzi be: “Fofo, amesi lolo wum.” (Yohanes 14:28) Ezã Hebri Ŋɔŋlɔawo ƒe akpa aɖewo, abe Psalmo 8:6 ene,  tsɔ ɖe alesi Biblia la ɖɔ Vi la be “ebɔbɔ ɖe anyi wu” la fia. Tertullian ƒo eta be: “Eyata Fofo la to vovo tso Vi la gbɔ eye wòlolo wu Vi la. Zi alesi Amesi dzi vi nye ame ɖeka, eye Amesi wodzi hã nye ame bubu la; nenema kee Amesi dɔ ame la nye ame ɖeka, eye Amesi wodɔ hã nye ame bubu; eye nenema kee, Amesi wɔ nuwo nye ame ɖeka, eye Amesi dzi woto wɔ nuwo hã nye ame bubu.”

Tertullian bu Vi la be ele Fofo la te. Ke hã le eƒe agbagbadzedze me be yeatsi modalism nu la ‘esusu wu nusi woŋlɔ ɖi.’ (Korintotɔwo I, 4:6) Esi Tertullian di be yeato nufiafia bubu dzi aɖo kpe Yesu ƒe mawunyenye dzi la, eto “nu ɖeka le ame etɔ̃ me” ƒe mɔnu aɖe vɛ vodadatɔe. Le nukpɔsusu sia zazã me la, etee kpɔ be yeafia be Mawu, Via, kple gbɔgbɔ kɔkɔea wonye ame vovovo etɔ̃ siwo le Mawu ɖeka me. Ale Tertullian va zu ame gbãtɔ si zã Latingbe me nya si wozãna na “mawuɖekaetɔ̃” la si nye Fofo la, Vi la, kple gbɔgbɔ kɔkɔe la.

Nɔ Ŋudzɔ ɖe Xexenunyawo Ŋu

Aleke Tertullian wɔ te ŋu to “nu ɖeka le ame etɔ̃ me” ƒe nufiafiaa vɛ? Ŋuɖoɖoa dze le nɔnɔme bubu si wɔ mo yaa le Tertullian ŋu me—si nye eƒe nukpɔsusu le xexemenunya ŋu. Tertullian yɔ xexemenunya be “amewo kple ‘gbɔgbɔ vɔ̃wo ƒe nufiafiawo.’ ” Eƒo nu tsi tre ɖe xexemenunya zazã atsɔ aɖe Kristotɔwo ƒe nyateƒea gɔme ŋu gaglã. Egblɔ be: “Miƒo asa na agbagba ɖesiaɖe si woadze be woatsɔ Stoa, kple Plato ƒe nufiafiawo, kple glãkahehe agblẽ Kristotɔnyenye mee.” Ke hã Tertullian ŋutɔ zã xexemenunya zi geɖe le afisi wòsɔ kple eya ŋutɔ ƒe nukpɔsusuwo le.—Kolosetɔwo 2:8.

Numekugbalẽ aɖe gblɔ be: “Mawuɖekaetɔ̃ ŋuti nunya bia be woazã Helatɔwo ƒe nukpɔsusu kple ɖoɖo si me wobua nuwo ɖo atsɔ aɖoe anyi.” Eye agbalẽ si nye The Theology of Tertullian (Tertullian ƒe Mawuŋutinunya) gblɔ be: “Senyawo kple xexemenunya tsakatsaka aɖaŋutɔe ye na Tertullian te ŋu ɖo mawuɖekaetɔ̃ nufiafia gɔme anyi ɖe mɔ aɖe nu eye togbɔ be kpɔtsɔtsɔwo le eŋu eye mede blibo o hã la, wonɔ te ɖe edzi gafɔ nufiafiaa ɖe te le Nicaea Aɖaŋuɖotakpekpea me.” Eyata Tertullian ƒe mɔnua—si nye ame etɔ̃ le mawu ɖeka me—wɔ akpa vevi aɖe le mawusubɔsubɔ me vodada kaka ɖe Kristodukɔa me me.

Tertullian tsɔ nya ɖe ame bubuwo ŋu be wonɔ nyateƒea dome gblẽm esime wonɔ agbagba dzem be woaʋli eta. Gake, nukutɔe la, eya ŋutɔ hã wɔ vodada ma esi wòtsaka Biblia me nyateƒea si tso Mawu ƒe gbɔgbɔ me la kple amegbetɔwo ƒe xexemenunya. Eyata mina míatsɔ dzi blibo awɔ ɖe Ŋɔŋlɔawo me nuxlɔ̃ame si nye be míatsi tre ɖe ‘toɖoɖo beblegbɔgbɔwo kple gbɔgbɔ vɔ̃wo ƒe nufiafia’ ŋu la dzi.—Timoteo I, 4:1.

[Nɔnɔmetata siwo le axa 29, 30]

Tertullian tsi tre ɖe xexemenunya ŋu gake zãe tsɔ do eya ŋutɔ ƒe nukpɔsusuwo ɖe ŋgɔ

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Pages 29 and 30: © Cliché Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 31]

Kristotɔ vavãwo ƒoa asa na Biblia me nyateƒea tsakatsaka kple amegbetɔ ƒe xexemenunya