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Nukae Nye Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsawo Ŋuti Nyateƒenya?

Nukae Nye Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsawo Ŋuti Nyateƒenya?

 Nukae Nye Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsawo Ŋuti Nyateƒenya?

Ƒe 50 kple edzivɔ enye si va yi la, kpe aɖe si Bedouin alẽkplɔla (alẽkplɔla tsatsala) aɖe da wòva dze agado aɖe me va zu nusi ame aɖewo yɔ be ƒe alafa 20 lia me tomenukuku si ɖe dzesi wu. Tsatsalaa se be kpea lɔ ze aɖe wògbã. Esi wòlé ŋku ɖe eme la, eke ɖe nusi yɔm wova le fifia be Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsawo ƒe gbãtɔ ŋu.

WOVA tsɔ ɖe le agbalẽxatsaxatsa siawo me vevie eye woʋlia nya le wo ŋu, le agbalẽnyalawo kple nyadzɔdzɔgblɔlawo siaa dome. Le amehawo dome la, eŋu nya siwo tɔtɔa ame kple nya totrowo gbɔgblɔ bɔ. Wogblɔ be woɣla gbogbo aɖewo le vɔvɔ̃ be agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo ɖe nyateƒenya siwo ate ŋu agblẽ nu le Kristotɔwo kple Yudatɔwo siaa ƒe dzixɔsewo ŋu la ɖe go ta. Gake asixɔxɔ ŋutɔŋutɔ kae le agbalẽxatsaxatsa siawo ŋu? Le ƒe 50 kple edzivɔwo megbe la, ɖe woate ŋu anya nya siwo ku ɖe wo ŋua?

Nukae Nye Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsawo?

Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsawo nye blema Yudatɔwo ƒe asinuŋɔŋlɔgbalẽ, siwo dometɔ akpa gãtɔ woŋlɔ ɖe Hebrigbe me, akpa aɖewo le Aramgbe me, eye ʋɛ aɖewo le Helagbe me. Agbalẽxatsaxatsa kple agbalẽ kakɛ siawo dometɔ geɖe xɔ wu ƒe 2,000 hafi wodzi Yesu. Asinuŋɔŋlɔgbalẽ didi adre siwo ƒe akpa aɖewo nyunyɔ wu bubuwo la nɔ agbalẽxatsaxatsa siwo wokpɔ tso Bedouinwo gbɔ la dometɔ gbãtɔwo dome. Esi wotsa agado bubuwo me la, woke ɖe agbalẽxatsaxatsa kple agbalẽ kakɛ akpe bubu geɖewo ŋu. Le ƒe 1947 vaseɖe ƒe 1956 dome la, woke ɖe agado 11 siwo me agbalẽxatsaxatsawo nɔ ŋu le afisi gogo Qumran, le Ƒukukua gbɔ.

Esime woke ɖe agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo kple agbalẽ  kakɛawo katã ŋu la, woƒe xexlẽme nye asinuŋɔŋlɔgbalẽ siwo anɔ abe 800 sɔŋ ene. Woƒe agbɔsɔsɔme ƒe akpa abe enelia ene, alo asinuŋɔŋlɔgbalẽ siwo wu 200, nye Hebrigbe me Biblia ƒe akpa vovovowo. Asinuŋɔŋlɔgbalẽ bubu siwo ŋu woke ɖo nye Yudatɔwo ƒe blemanuŋɔŋlɔ siwo menye Biblia ƒe agbalẽwo o, wonye Apocrypha kple Pseudepigrapha. *

Agbalẽawo dometɔ siwo nyɔ agbalẽnyawo ƒe ɖetsɔleme wu enye ŋɔŋlɔ siwo womenya tsã o. Wo dometɔ aɖewo nye Yudatɔwo ƒe sea me nyawo gɔmeɖeɖe, se siwo wode koŋ na kɔmama si nɔ Qumran nutoa me tɔwo, subɔsubɔkɔnu me hakpanyawo kple gbedodoɖawo, kple xexeame ƒe nuwuwu ŋuti nuŋlɔɖi siwo ɖe nukpɔsusu siwo ku ɖe Biblia me nyagblɔɖiwo me vava kple ŋkeke mamlɛawo ŋu la fia. Biblia-gɔmeɖegbalẽ tɔxɛwo hã li, eye woawoe nye blema Biblia-kpukpuiwo me ɖegbalẽ xoxotɔ kekeake siwo do ŋgɔ na egbegbe tɔwo.

Amekawoe Ŋlɔ Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo?

Ɣeyiɣi ŋuti kɔntabumɔnu vovovo siwo wozãna na blemagbalẽwo ɖee fia be wogbugbɔ ŋlɔ agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo le ƒe alafa etɔ̃lia D.M.Ŋ. kple ƒe alafa gbãtɔ M.Ŋ. me dome. Agbalẽnyala aɖewo bui be anye Yudatɔ siwo tso Yerusalem ye ɣla agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo ɖe agadowo me do ŋgɔ na gbedoxɔa gbagbã le ƒe 70 M.Ŋ. me. Gake agbalẽnyala siwo ku nu me le agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo ŋu dometɔ akpa gãtɔ kpɔe be nukpɔsusu sia mewɔ ɖeka kple agbalẽawo ŋutɔ me nyawo o. Nukpɔsusu kple kɔnu siwo le agbalẽxatsaxatsaa geɖe me tsi tre ɖe subɔsubɔhakplɔla siwo nɔ Yerusalem la ƒe nuwɔnawo ŋu. Agbalẽxatsaxatsa siawo me nyawo fia be ƒuƒoƒo aɖe si xɔe se be Mawu gbe nunɔlawo kple Yerusalem gbedoxɔ me subɔsubɔ eye be ebu yewoƒe ƒuƒoƒoa ƒe tadedeagu le gbedadaƒo be eyae xɔ ɖe gbedoxɔ me subɔsubɔ teƒe lae ŋlɔe. Edze abe ɖe manya wɔ be Yerusalem gbedoxɔ me subɔsubɔhakplɔlawo naɣla nuŋlɔɖi siwo dome agbalẽ mawo hã le be woanɔ dedie o ene.

Togbɔ be anɔ eme be nugbugbɔgaŋlɔla gbogbo aɖewo nɔ Qumran hã la, ɖewohĩ ɖe xɔsetɔawo ƒo agbalẽxatsaxatsa siawo dometɔ geɖe nu ƒu tso teƒe bubuwo tsɔ va afima. Míate ŋu agblɔ be teƒe vovovowoe woƒo Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsawo nu ƒu tsoe. Abe alesi wònɔna le agbalẽdzraɖoƒe ɖesiaɖe gomee ene la, agbalẽ vovovo siwo ƒe nukpɔsusuwo to vovo na wo nɔewo anɔ agbalẽawo me, womaku ɖe exlẽlawo ƒe subɔsubɔ nukpɔsusuwo ŋu kokoko o. Gake nuŋlɔɖiawo dometɔ siwo bɔ wu la anye esiwo ku ɖe nusiwo dzɔa dzi na afimatɔwo kple esi ɖe woƒe dzixɔsewo fia ŋu.

Essenetɔwoe Qumrantɔwo Nyea?

Ne Qumran-gbalẽdzraɖoƒee agbalẽxatsaxatsa siawo nɔ la, ke amekawoe nɔ nuto ma me? Nufialagã Eleazar Sukenik, amesi xɔ agbalẽxatsaxatsa etɔ̃ na Hebrigbe Yunivɛsiti si le Jerusalem le ƒe 1947 me, ye nye ame gbãtɔ si bui be agbalẽxatsaxatsa siawo nye Essenetɔwo ƒe agbalẽ.

Essenetɔwo nye Yudatɔwo ƒe kɔmama aɖe si ŋu ƒe alafa gbãtɔ me ƒe agbalẽŋlɔla siwo nye Josephus, Philo si tso Alexandria , kple Pliny Tsitsitɔ ƒo nu tsoe. Womenya afisi tututu Essenetɔwo dzɔ tso o, gake edze abe woanya do le Maccabeewo ƒe aglãdzeɣi le ƒe alafa evelia D.M.Ŋ. lɔƒo ene. * Josephus ka nya ta tso woƒe anyinɔnɔ le ɣemaɣi ŋu esime wònɔ nu ŋlɔm tsitotsito tso alesi woƒe subɔsubɔ nukpɔsusuwo to vovo na Farisitɔwo kple Zadukitɔwo tɔ ŋu. Pliny gblɔ be Essenetɔ aɖewo nɔ Ƒukukua gbɔ le Yerixo kple En-Gedi domee.

Nufialagã James VanderKam si nye Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo ŋuti nunyala do susu ɖa be “Essenetɔ siwo nɔ Qumran-nutoa me nye Essenetɔwo ƒe ha gã la ƒe akpa sue aɖe ko,” eye Josephus gblɔ be woƒe xexlẽme anɔ akpe ene. Nusiwo Qumran-nuŋlɔɖiwo ɖe fia le ha bliboa ŋu dze abe esɔ kple Essenetɔawo wu Yudatɔwo ƒe hatsotso bubu ɖesiaɖe si nɔ anyi ɣemaɣi ene, togbɔ be menye nuŋlɔɖiawo me nyawo katãe sɔ kpli wo o hã.

Ame aɖewo gblɔ be Qumran ye Kristotɔnyenye  dzɔ tso. Gake míate ŋu akpɔ vovototo gã geɖe le Qumran-kɔmama la ƒe subɔsubɔ nukpɔsusuwo kple Kristotɔ gbãtɔwo tɔ dome. Edze le agbalẽ siwo wokpɔ le Qumran me be Sabat-se sesẽ siwo gbɔ eme nɔ wo si eye wotsia dzi ɖe dzadzɛnyenye le kɔnu nu ŋu ale gbegbe. (Mateo 15:1-20; Luka 6:1-11) Míate ŋu agblɔ nya ma ke le Essenetɔwo ƒe wo ɖokui ɖeɖe ɖe aga tso hadome, woƒe dzɔgbese kple luʋɔ makumaku dzixɔsewo, kpakple alesi wotea gbe ɖe trenɔnɔ kple vivime nufiafiawo le gomekpɔkpɔ kple mawudɔlawo le woƒe tadedeagu me dzi hã gome. Esia ɖee fia be woƒe nufiafiawo to vovo na Yesu kple ƒe alafa gbãtɔ me Kristotɔwo tɔ.—Mateo 5:14-16; Yohanes 11:23, 24; Kolosetɔwo 2:18; Timoteo I, 4:1-3.

Wometsyɔ Nu Naneke Dzi o, Womeɣla Agbalẽxatsaxatsa Aɖeke O

Le ƒe siwo kplɔ keke ɖe Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo ŋu ɖo me la, wota agbalẽ vovovo siwo na agbalẽ siwo ŋu woke ɖo gbã la me nyawo va bɔ agbalẽnyalawo ate ŋu akpɔ azã le xexeame katã. Gake kuxi va nɔ agbalẽ kakɛ akpe geɖe siwo ŋu woke ɖo le agadoawo dometɔ ɖeka, si woyɔna be Agado 4 lia, me ŋu. Agbalẽ siawo nɔ agbalẽnyala siwo tso dukɔ vovovo me ƒe dɔwɔha sue aɖe si woɖo ɖe East Jerusalem (si nye Jordan ƒe akpa aɖe ɣemaɣi) le Palestine Blemanudzraɖoƒe la si me. Womena agbalẽnyala siwo nye Yudatɔwo alo Israel-vi aɖeke nɔ dɔwɔha sia me o.

Dɔwɔhaa wɔ ɖoɖo be yewomaɖe mɔ ame aɖeke nakpɔ agbalẽawo o vaseɖe esime yewoata yewoƒe numekukuwo me tsonuwo vɔ hafi. Woɖo agbalẽnyalawo ƒe xexlẽme aɖe koŋ be woawo koe anɔ dɔwɔhaa me. Ne dɔwɔhaa me tɔ aɖe ku la, agbalẽnyala yeye ɖeka koe wotsɔ ɖoa eteƒe. Dɔa ƒe lolome bia dɔwɔha si lolo wu ema kura, eye le go aɖewo me la, ebia blema Hebri kple Aram gbe nyanya si de ŋgɔ wu. James VanderKam gblɔe ale: “Agbalẽ kakɛ akpe geɖe ŋuti dɔwo sɔ gbɔ wu nusi agbalẽnyala enyi ate ŋu awɔ, eɖanye aleke ke wobii hã o.”

Ƒe 1967 me Ŋkeke Ade Ʋa la na be East Jerusalem kple eƒe agbalẽxatsaxatsawo va nɔ Israeltɔwo ƒe dziɖuŋusẽ te, gake womewɔ tɔtrɔ aɖeke le agbalẽawo ŋuti numekuha ŋu o. Esi Agado 4 lia me ƒe agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo tata nɔ hehem ɖe megbe va ɖo ƒe bla nanewo la, agbalẽnyala geɖe he nya ɖe eŋu. Le ƒe 1977 me la, Nufialagã Geza Vermes si le Oxford Yunivɛsiti yɔe be ƒe alafa 20 lia me agbalẽnyanya me ŋukpenya gãtɔ kekeake. Nya aɖewo te kaka be ɖe Katoliko-ha la ɖoe koŋ ɣla agbalẽawo, be womeganya wo me nyatakaka siwo agblẽ nu le Kristotɔnyenye ŋu o.

Le ƒe 1980-awo me la, wova dzi dɔwɔhaa me tɔwo ɖe edzi mlɔeba wo ɖo agbalẽnyala 20. Emegbe le ƒe 1990 me, le nuŋɔŋlɔmetolawo ƒe tatɔ yeye Emanuel Tov si le Hebrigbe Yunivɛsiti si le Jerusalem ƒe mɔfiafia te la, wogadzi dɔwɔhaa me tɔwo ɖe edzi wova wu agbalẽnyala 50. Wowɔ ɖoɖo si dzi woazɔ ɖo tututu le agbalẽxatsaxatsa susɔeawo katã ŋuti nyatakaka siwo agbalẽnyalawo aɖe ɖe go la tata ŋu.

Wowɔ ŋgɔyiyi ŋutɔŋutɔ aɖe si womenɔ mɔ kpɔm na o le ƒe 1991 me. Gbã la, wota A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls (Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsa Siwo Wometa O ƒe Tata Gbãtɔ). Wonɔ te ɖe dɔwɔhaa ƒe nyadigbalẽ aɖe dzi ƒo tata sia nu ƒu to kɔmpiutaɖaŋu dzi. Emegbe Huntington ƒe Agbalẽdzraɖoƒe si le San Marino, California, ɖe gbeƒãe be yewoaɖe yewoƒe agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo ƒe fotowo katã ɖe go be wòate ŋu asu agbalẽnyala ɖesiaɖe si. Medidi o, A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsa ƒe Fotokɔpi) wɔe be agbalẽxatsaxatsa siwo wometa tsã o ƒe fotowo va bɔ agbalẽnyala ɖesiaɖe ate ŋu akpɔ bɔbɔe.

Eyata le ƒe ewo siwo va yi me la, Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsaawo katã li hena numekuku wɔwɔ le wo ŋu. Numekukua ɖee fia be wometsyɔ nu naneke dzi o; womeɣla agbalẽxatsaxatsa aɖeke o. Esi wole agbalẽxatsaxatsa mamlɛawo tam ta la, fifia hafi woate ŋu adze wo ŋuti numekuku tsitotsito bliboe gɔme. Ena be agbalẽxatsaxatsa ŋuti nusrɔ̃la bibiwo ƒe dzidzime yeye aɖe va do. Gake viɖe kae le numekuku sia ŋu na Biblia-srɔ̃lawo?

[Etenuŋɔŋlɔwo]

^ mm. 6 Apocrypha (egɔme le nyaa ŋutɔŋutɔ nue nye, “ŋɔŋlɔ ɣaɣlawo”) kple Pseudepigrapha (egɔme le nyaa ŋutɔŋutɔ nue nye “agbalẽ siwo woŋlɔ ɖe amewo ƒe ŋkɔ me alakpatɔe”) siaa nye Yudatɔwo ƒe agbalẽ siwo woŋlɔ tso ƒe alafa etɔ̃lia D.M.Ŋ. vaseɖe ƒe alafa gbãtɔ M.Ŋ. me. Roma Katoliko Ha da asi ɖe Apocrypha la dzi be enye Biblia-gbalẽ siwo dzi woda asi ɖo be wotso gbɔgbɔ me la ƒe akpa aɖe, gake Yudatɔwo kple Protestanttɔwo gbe agbalẽ siawo. Zi geɖe la, woŋlɔa Pseudepigrapha la wònyea nyakpakpa kpe Biblia me ŋutinyawo, eye woŋlɔnɛ le Biblia-meme xɔŋkɔwo ƒe ŋkɔ me.

^ mm. 13 Kpɔ nyati si nye “Amekawoe Nye Maccabeewo?” le November 15, 1998, Gbetakpɔxɔ ƒe axa 21-4.

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 3]

Agado siwo tsɔ ɖe Ƒukukua gbɔ siwo me wokpɔ blemagbalẽxatsaxatsawo le dometɔ aɖewoe nye esiawo

[Nɔnɔmetata Tsoƒe si le axa 3]

Agbalẽxatsaxatsa kakɛ: Axa 3, 4, kple 6: Courtesy of Israel Antiquities Authority

[Nɔnɔmetata Tsoƒe si le axa 5]

Courtesy of Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, Jerusalem