Dzo kpo yi emenuwo dzi

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Dzidzedzekpɔkpɔ Kple Kpododonu le Aʋa si Woho ɖe Dɔléle ŋu Me

Dzidzedzekpɔkpɔ Kple Kpododonu le Aʋa si Woho ɖe Dɔléle ŋu Me

 Dzidzedzekpɔkpɔ Kple Kpododonu le Aʋa si Woho ɖe Dɔléle ŋu Me

LE August 5, 1942, dzi la, Ðk. Alexander Fleming kpɔ be yeƒe dɔnɔ aɖe si nye ye xɔlɔ̃ nɔ kukum. Taɖuame sesẽ aɖe kple dzimeƒuveame dze ŋutsu sia si xɔ ƒe 52 la dzi, eye togbɔ be Fleming wɔ ɖesiaɖe hã, ɖeko exɔlɔ̃a yi ɖime.

Ƒe 15 do ŋgɔ la, Fleming va ke ɖe atike vevi aɖe si le dza ƒomevi tɔxɛ aɖe si ƒe amadede le blɔ eye gbemumu dze le eme la ŋu le vome. Etsɔ ŋkɔ nɛ be penicillin. Ede dzesii be ete ŋu wu dɔlékuiwo; gake mete ŋu ɖe penicillin la ɖeɖe le dzaƒoƒoa me o, ke boŋ ɖeko wòdoe kpɔ kpɔ be ate ŋu awu dɔlékuiwo. Gake le ƒe 1938 me la, Howard Florey kple amesiwo nɔ numekuku wɔm kplii le Oxford Yunivɛsiti ɖoe be yewoadze agbagba awɔ atike sia ƒe agbɔsɔsɔme aɖe ahadoe kpɔ ɖe amegbetɔwo ŋu. Fleming ƒo ka na Florey eye Florey lɔ̃ be yeaɖo penicillin siwo katã le ye si la ɖee. Mɔnukpɔkpɔ mamlɛtɔ si ko Fleming agate ŋu ate azã kpɔ be yeaxɔ ye xɔlɔ̃a ɖe agbee nye ema.

Fleming kpɔ be penicillin la mesɔ gbɔ yeado ɖe lãme na ye xɔlɔ̃a o, eyata edoe ɖe eƒe dzimeƒu me tẽ. Penicillin la wu dɔlékuiawo, eye le kwasiɖa ɖeka kple ŋkeke aɖewo ko megbe la, Fleming ƒe dɔnɔa haya keŋkeŋ hedzo le kɔa dzi. Ɣemaɣie dɔlékuiwutikewo zazã dze egɔme, eye ameƒomea wɔ ŋgɔyiyi ɖedzesi aɖe le aʋa si woho ɖe dɔléle ŋu me.

Dɔlékuiwutikewo ƒe Ɣeyiɣi

Zi gbãtɔ si wodze dɔlékuiwutikewo zazã gɔme la, wodze abe atike siwo ɖua dɔlékui ɖesiaɖe dzi ene. Woate ŋu ada dɔ siwo dɔlékuiwo hena vɛ siwo nye dɔ siwo dzi womete ŋu kpe o vaseɖe ɣemaɣi la azɔ. Atike yeye siawo wɔe be amesiwo kuna le tave si tsoa ame ƒe ahɔhɔ̃ ƒe tete gbɔ, axamedɔ, kple asrãdɔ si me ʋu sina yia ŋutigbalẽa me ta dzi ɖe kpɔtɔ ŋutɔ. Woda dɔ vɔ̃ɖi siwo amewo xɔna le woƒe kɔdzi nɔɣi la le ŋkeke ʋɛ aɖewo ko me.

Tso Fleming ƒe ɣeyiɣia me ke la, numekulawo wɔ dɔlékuiwutike bubu geɖewo, eye wogale yeyewo didi dzi. Le ƒe 60 siwo va yi me la, dɔlékuiwutikewo va zu aʋawɔnu vevi aɖe le aʋa si woho ɖe dɔléle ŋu me. Ne ɖe George Washington gali egbea la, anye ne ɖɔktawo azã dɔlékuiwutike ada eƒe vemeve la nɛ, eye ɖewohĩ kwasiɖa ɖeka aɖewo megbe ko wòahaya hafi. Dɔlékuiwutikewo kpe ɖe mí katã mía ŋu míeda dɔ vovovowo. Ke hã eva le dzedzem be dɔlékuiwutikewo megate ŋu le dɔwo katã dam o.

Dɔlékuiwutikewo mete ŋu daa dɔ siwo dɔlékui siwo le suesue wu siwo woyɔna be virus hena vɛ, abe AIDS alo  dzamezã ene, o. Tsɔ kpe ɖe eŋu la, dɔlékuiwutike aɖewo hoa dɔ bubuwo na ame aɖewo. Eye dɔlékuiwutike siwo te ŋu wua dɔlékui ƒomevi geɖewo ate ŋu atsrɔ̃ nugbagbevi suesue siwo kpena ɖe míaƒe ŋutilã ŋu la hã. Gake ɖewohĩ nusi nye kuxi gãtɔ kekeake le dɔlékuiwutikewo ŋue nye wo zazã fũ akpa alo wo mazãmazã wòade eteƒe.

Dɔlékuiwutikewo mazãmazã wòade eteƒe fia be dɔnɔwo mezãa atikea agbɔsɔsɔ si ɖɔktaa gblɔ be woazã la katã o, elabena ɖewohĩ ewɔ na wo be yewohaya loo alo atikea zazã xɔ ɣeyiɣi didi. Ewɔnɛ be dɔlékuiwutikea metsrɔ̃a dɔlékuiawo vɔna o, si nana be dɔlékui siwo mesea nu kaba o tsia anyi dzina ɖe edzi. Nusia dzɔna zi geɖe le yɔmekpe dada gome.

Ðɔktawo kple agbledelawo siaa zãa atike yeye siawo fũ akpa. Agbalẽ si nye Man and Microbes ɖe nu me be: “Wolɔ̃a dɔlékuiwutikewo ŋɔŋlɔ na ame akpa le United States, eye dukɔ bubu geɖewo tɔ vɔ̃ɖi wu. Wodo gbogbo aɖe na lãhawo, menye be woatsɔ ada dɔe na wo o, ke boŋ be woadzi kabakaba; nusia nye susu vevi aɖe si tae womegate ŋu le dɔlékuiwo dzi ɖum o ɖo.” Agbalẽa xlɔ̃ nu be ena be “ɖewohĩ míena dɔlékuiwutike yeyeawo le vɔvɔm.”

 Gake to vovo na alesi dɔlékui aɖewo megava le dɔlékuiwutikewo sem o la, wowɔ ŋgɔyiyi geɖe le atikeŋutinunya me tso ƒe alafa 20 lia ƒe domedome dzi. Ewɔ abe dɔdada ŋuti numekulawo te ŋu kpɔ atike siwo te ŋu daa dɔ ɖesiaɖe kloe ene. Eye kura gɔ̃ hã la, abɔtasitikewo te ŋu naa woxea mɔ ɖe dɔlélewo nu.

Atikeŋutinunya me Dzidzedzekpɔkpɔwo

The World Health Report 1999 (Xexeame ƒe Lãmesẽ Ŋuti Nyatakaka, Ƒe 1999) gblɔ be: “Abɔtasisi ye nye dzidzedze gãtɔ kekeake si wokpɔ le amewo ƒe lãmesẽtakpɔkpɔ gome.” Abɔtasiɖoɖo siwo wowɔ le xexeame godoo kpɔ ame miliɔn geɖe ƒe agbe ta xoxo. Abɔtasiɖoɖo siwo wowɔ le xexeame katã ɖe sakpate—si nye dɔléle si ƒe nugblẽƒe mekɔ o si tsrɔ̃ amewo wu aʋa siwo katã wowɔ le ƒe alafa 20 lia me—ɖa, eye ɖoɖo sia tɔgbe ke ɖe ɖeviwo ƒe atatutudɔ ɖa keŋkeŋ kloe. (Kpɔ aɖaka si nye “Sakpate Kple Ðeviwo ƒe Tutudɔ Dzi Ðuɖu.”) Wole abɔta sim na ɖevi geɖe fifia ale be woagaxɔ dɔ siwo ate ŋu wu wo o.

Woto mɔnu bubu siwo le bɔbɔe wu dzi ɖe dɔléle bubuwo hã dzi kpɔtɔ. Ne wodzra ame ɖokui gbɔ ɖo nyuie hekpɔ tsi nyui zã la, ekpɔa ame ta tso dɔléle siwo tsoa tsi nyui mazãmazã gbɔ abe kolera ene me. Le dukɔ geɖe me la, mɔnukpɔkpɔ si va le ame geɖe si sum be woayi kɔdzi wɔe be woate ŋu akpɔ dɔléle akpa gãtɔ si le wo ŋu ahada wo hafi wòava ɖo afisi woawu ame. Nuɖuɖu nyui kple teƒe si le dzadzɛ nɔnɔ, kpakple se siwo li ku ɖe nusi ƒomevi woaɖu kple alesi woalé be na woe ŋu hã na ame geɖe wu va le lãmesẽ me.

Ne dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyalawo nya kpɔ nusi gbɔ dɔxɔleameŋuwo tso ko la, dziɖuɖuwo ate ŋu aɖe afɔ siwo sɔ axe mɔ ɖe dɔvɔ̃wo ƒe kaka nu. Bu eƒe kpɔɖeŋu ɖeka ko ŋu kpɔ. Axatome kple aŋɔme tete dɔvɔ̃ to le San Francisco le ƒe 1907 me, gake ame ʋɛ aɖewo koe wòwu elabena dugã ma dzikpɔlawo dze agbagba tsrɔ̃ alegeli siwo ŋu axɔ̃ si naa dɔlélea nɔ la. Gake dɔléle ma ke si dze egɔme le ƒe 1896 me la wu ame miliɔn ewo le India le ƒe 12 siwo kplɔe ɖo me elabena womenya nusi hea dɔlélea vɛ ɣemaɣi o.

Dɔléle Nutsitsi me Kpododonuwo

Eme kɔ kɔte be wokpɔ aʋadziɖuɖu geɖe. Gake dukɔ deŋgɔwo me koe dumeviwo ƒe lãmesẽtakpɔkpɔ ɖoɖo aɖewo tsi. Dɔ aɖewo siwo woate ŋu ada hafi la gale ame miliɔn geɖe wum kokoko le ga manɔanyi ta. Le dukɔ madeŋgɔwo me la, dzadzɛnyenye me léle ɖe asi, lãmesẽtakpɔkpɔ, kple tsi nyui kpɔkpɔ azã kpɔtɔ nye kuxi na ame geɖe kokoko. Nu vevi siawo gbɔ kpɔkpɔ va le sesẽm ɖe edzi le dukɔ madeŋgɔwo me le esi ame gbogbo aɖewo le ʋuʋum tso dukɔ madeŋgɔwo ƒe kɔƒeduwo me le dugã siwo me yɔ gbagba me yim ta. Ena be xexemedukɔ dahewo “dzea dɔ wu,” abe alesi Xexeame ƒe Lãmesẽ Habɔbɔ gblɔe ene.

Ðokuitɔdidi si na womebua nuwo ŋu yia ŋgɔe o ye nye nusi na dukɔ aɖewo kpea fu tso dɔléle si me wu bubuwo. Agbalẽ si nye Man and Microbes gblɔ be: “Dɔvɔ̃ siwo wua ame wu dometɔ aɖewo le didiƒe ʋĩ. Wo dometɔ aɖewo le nuto siwo me dzoxɔxɔ nɔna ɖeɖeko me, alo afimae woƒe akpa gãtɔ le.” Esi wònye ga tsɔtsɔ na be woada dɔ siawo maɖe vi na dukɔ deŋgɔwo kple atikewɔhawo tẽ o ta la, wohena ɖe megbe le kpekpeɖeŋu sia nana me.

Amegbetɔwo ƒe nuwɔwɔ ɖekematsɔlemetɔe hã nye nusiwo na dɔlélewo le kakam dometɔ ɖeka. Nusia ƒe kpɔɖeŋu vevitɔ si li ye nye AIDS dɔlékui, si woxɔna tso ame gbɔ toa amea ƒe lãmetsi me. Le ƒe ʋɛ aɖewo ko me la, dɔ vɔ̃ɖi sia kaka ɖe xexeame godoo kabakaba. (Kpɔ aɖaka si nye “AIDS—Míaƒe Ɣeyiɣia me Dɔvɔ̃.”) Dɔvɔ̃ŋunyala Joe McCormick gblɔ be: “Amegbetɔwo ŋutɔe dii na wo ɖokui. Menye ɖe míele egblɔm be míatsɔ aɖe ɖeklemi amewo ƒe agbenɔnɔe o, nyateƒea ŋutɔŋutɔ ko gblɔm míele.”

Aleke amegbetɔwo wɔ kaka AIDS le manyamanya me? Agbalẽ si nye The Coming Plague (Dɔvɔ̃ si Gbɔna) yɔ nusiwo gbɔna be woawoe nye mɔnuawo dometɔ aɖewo: Hadometɔtrɔwo—vevietɔ ahiãwɔwɔ—na nulɔdɔwo va bɔ, si wɔe be dɔlékuia va xɔ anyinɔ eye ame geɖe ate  ŋu axɔe tso amesi ŋu wòle ŋu. Abui siwo ŋu dɔlékuia le si atikevɔ̃ɖi zãla aɖe zã alo si atikewɔlawo zã tsɔ do abui na ame bubuwo le dukɔ madeŋgɔwo me hã zazã gblẽa nu alea ke. Adzɔha siwo kpɔa dɔlar biliɔn geɖe to ʋudzadzra me hã na ame gbogbo aɖewo xɔa AIDS dɔlékuia tso ʋuɖela ɖeka ko gɔ̃ hã gbɔ.

Abe alesi míegblɔe do ŋgɔ ene la, dɔlékuiwutikewo zazã fũ akpa alo wo zazã se mɔdzi na dɔlékui maseatikewo va do. Ŋkubiãnyae kuxi sia nye eye ɖeko wòle gbegblẽm ɖe edzi. Tsã wozãa atike siwo me penicillin le tsɔ tsrɔ̃a dɔlékui siwo woyɔna be Staphylococcus, si naa abi vona lae. Gake fifia dɔlékuiwutike nyanyɛ siawo megate ŋu wɔa dɔ tututu o. Eyata ele be ɖɔktawo nazã dɔlékuiwutike yeye siwo xɔ asi, evɔ ga mele dukɔ madeŋgɔ kɔdziwo si woaƒle wo o. Ate ŋu adzɔ be dɔlékuiwutike yeyetɔwo kekeake gɔ̃ hã mate ŋu atsrɔ̃ dɔlékui aɖewo o, esi awɔe be dɔxɔxɔ le kɔdzi nava bɔ ɖe edzi eye wo dada nasẽ wu. Ðk. Richard Krause, amesi nye United States Dukɔa ƒe Dɔhonamewo Kple Dɔxɔleameŋuwo ƒe Nusrɔ̃ha dzikpɔla tsã gblɔ tso alesi nuwo le fifia ŋu kaŋ be enye “dɔlékui maseatikewo kaka ɖe afisiafi.”

‘Ðe Nuwo Nyo Wu Egbea?’

Edze ƒã be dɔvɔ̃wo ƒe ŋɔdzi nu meyi fifia esi míeɖo ƒe alafa 21 lia gɔ̃ hã me o. AIDS ƒe kaka atraɖii, dɔlékui maseatikewo ƒe dodo, kple blemadɔ siwo wua ame abe yɔmekpe kple asrã ene ƒe tɔtrɔgbɔ ɖee fia be aʋa si woho ɖe dɔléle ŋu meke o.

Nobel Nunanaxɔla Joshua Lederberg bia be: “Ðe alesi nuwo le egbea nyo wu alesi wònɔ ƒe alafa ɖekae nye esia?” Egblɔ be: “Le nu akpa gãtɔ me la, ɖe nuwo gblẽ ɖe edzi boŋ wu. Míetsi dzi ɖe dɔlékuiwo ŋu o, eye emetsonuawo trɔ ɖe mía ŋutɔwo mía ŋuti.” Ðe atikeŋutinunyalawo ƒe agbagbadzedzewo ate ŋu aɖe kuxi si li fifia ɖa na xexeame dukɔwo katã? Ðe woava ɖe dɔxɔleameŋu vɔ̃ɖi wuamewo ɖa mlɔeba, abe alesi woɖe sakpate ɖae enea? Míaƒe nyati mamlɛtɔ adzro biabia siawo me.

[Aɖaka/Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 24]

Sakpate Kple Ðeviwo ƒe Tutudɔ Dzi Ðuɖu

Le October 1977 ƒe nuwuwu la, Xexeame ƒe Lãmesẽ Habɔbɔ ke ɖe ame mamlɛtɔ si dzi sakpate dze to mɔ si nu woxɔnɛ tonɛ nu la ŋu. Kɔdzi nuɖala aɖe si le Somalia, Ali Maow Maalin, ye lé dɔ sia gake mesesẽ nɛ akpa o, eyata ehaya le kwasiɖa ʋɛ aɖewo megbe. Wosi abɔta na eŋumewo katã.

Ðɔktawo nɔ lalam dzitsitsitɔe ƒe eve sɔŋ. Woka dɔlar 1,000 be woatsɔ ana amesiame si agate ŋu ake ɖe ame bubu si “le sakpate lém” si ŋu kpeɖodzi le la ŋu. Ame aɖeke mete ŋu ke ɖe ame bubu aɖeke si ŋu kpeɖodzi le be ele eŋu la ŋu o, eye le May 8, 1980, dzi la, Xexeame ƒe Lãmesẽ Habɔbɔ ɖe gbeƒãe be “Xexeame kple emenɔlawo katã vo azɔ tso sakpate si me.” Ƒe ewo pɛ ko do ŋgɔ la, sakpate wua amesiwo ade miliɔn eve ƒe sia ƒe. Eyae nye zi gbãtɔ si woɖe dɔxɔleameŋu gblẽnu aɖe ɖa vɔ keŋkeŋ le ŋutinya me kpɔ. *

Ewɔ abe ɖe woate ŋu aɖu ɖeviwo ƒe atatutudɔ si nye dɔléle aɖe si gblẽa nu le ɖeviwo ŋu la hã dzi nenema ke ene. Le ƒe 1955 me la, Jonas Salk wɔ abɔtasitike sẽŋu aɖe si xea mɔ na ɖeviwo ƒe atatutudɔ, hete eƒe abɔtasisi na ɖeviwo le United States kple dukɔ bubuwo me. Emegbe wova wɔ mɔxeɖenutike si wokɔna ɖe nume na ɖeviwo. Le ƒe 1988 me la, Xexeame ƒe Lãmesẽ Habɔbɔ wɔ ɖoɖo aɖe be woatsɔ aɖe ɖeviwo ƒe atatutudɔ ɖa keŋkeŋ le xexeame katã.

Ðk. Gro Harlem Brundtland si nye Xexeame ƒe Lãmesẽ Habɔbɔa ƒe dɔdzikpɔlagã ɣemaɣi la gblɔ be: “Esime míedze agbagbadzedze le ƒe 1988 me gɔme be míaɖe ɖeviwo ƒe atatutudɔ ɖa keŋkeŋ la, dɔlélea na ɖevi siwo wu 1000 tuna gbesiagbe. Le ƒe 2001 me la, ɖevi siwo dɔa tu ata na le ƒe bliboa me mede 1000 o.” Dukɔ siwo me ɖeviwo ƒe atatutudɔa gale fifia mede ewo o, gake ehiã ga geɖe be woatsɔ akpe ɖe dukɔ siawo ŋu woatsɔ aɖe dɔlélea ɖae keŋkeŋ.

[Etenuŋɔŋlɔ]

^ mm. 28 Sakpate nye dɔ si dzi woate ŋu aɖu to xexeame katã ƒe abɔtasisi ɖoɖo dzi, elabena to vovo na dɔléle siwo lãwo abe alegeliwo alo nudzodzoewo ene kakana la, ame ƒe lãme koe sakpate dɔlékuia te ŋu nɔa agbe le.

[Nɔnɔmetata]

Wole ɖeviwo ƒe atatutudɔ ƒe abɔtasitiketsi aɖe kɔm ɖe Ethiopia-vi aɖe ƒe nume

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

© WHO/P. Virot

[Aɖaka/Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 26]

AIDS​—Míaƒe Ɣeyiɣia me Dɔvɔ̃

Alesi AIDS dze kaka gɔmee la na wòva zu ŋɔdzinu le xexeame godoo. Le dzesidede dɔléle sia anye ƒe 20 megbe la, amesiwo wu miliɔn 60 ye xɔe xoxo. Eye lãmesẽnyawo gbɔkpɔlawo xlɔ̃ nu be AIDS ƒe kaka ƒe “gɔmedzedze” koe nye esia. Amesiwo le exɔm la le “dzidzim ɖe edzi kabakaba wu alesi wobui tsã,” eye ele nu gblẽm ŋutɔ le teƒe siwo wòle ame geɖe ŋu le.

Dukɔ Ƒoƒuawo ƒe nyatakaka aɖe ɖe nu me be: “Ame akpa gãtɔ siwo ŋu HIV/AIDS le la nye amesiwo le woƒe ɖekakpui kple ɖetugbi me.” Esia na be woxɔe se be va ɖo ƒe 2005 me la, dukɔ siwo le Afrika ƒe anyiehe dometɔ geɖe me dɔwɔla 10 va ɖo 20 le alafa me maganɔ anyi o. Nyatakakaa gblɔ hã be: “Amesiwo le Afrika Sahara Dzogbe ƒe anyiehe ƒe agbenɔƒe nye ƒe 47 fifia le mama dedie nu. Ne menye AIDS tae o la, anye ne ƒe 62 wòanye hafi.”

Womekpɔ ta na agbagba siwo wodze be woadi abɔtasitike na AIDS o, eye ame miliɔn ade siwo ŋu wòle le dukɔ madeŋgɔwo me dometɔ 4 le alafa me koe kpɔa atike zãna na dɔléle sia. Vaseɖe fifia la, atike aɖeke meli si daa AIDS o, eye ɖɔktawo le vɔvɔ̃m be dɔa ava ho na amesiwo ƒe lãme dɔlékuia le la ƒe akpa gãtɔ mlɔeba.

[Nɔnɔmetata]

HIV dɔlékuia gblẽ nu le ʋumenugbagbeviɣi (T lymphocyte cell) siwo wɔa avu kple dɔlékui siwo ɖo lãme na ame ŋu

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Godo-Foto

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 23]

Kɔdzi nudokpɔla aɖe le ŋku lém ɖe dɔlékui maseatike vɔ̃ɖi aɖe ŋu

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

CDC/Anthony Sanchez