Dzo kpo yi emenuwo dzi

Dzo kpo yi emenuawo dzi

Ƒe Alafa Si Me Wowɔ Ŋutasẽnuwo Le

Ƒe Alafa Si Me Wowɔ Ŋutasẽnuwo Le

 Ƒe Alafa Si Me Wowɔ Ŋutasẽnuwo Le

ALFRED NOBEL xɔe se be ŋutifafa ate ŋu anɔ anyi ne aʋawɔnu vɔ̃ɖiwo le dukɔwo si. Ne èbu eŋu kpɔ la, dukɔwo awɔ ɖeka kaba ahatsrɔ̃ dukɔ sesẽnuxɔla ɖesiaɖe ɖa. Eŋlɔ be: “Esia anye nusi atsi aʋawɔwɔ nu.” Le Nobel ƒe nukpɔsusu nu la, dukɔ nyanu aɖeke mahe aʋa vɛ ne emetsonua ahe gbegblẽ ava edzi o. Gake nukae dzɔ le ƒe alafa si va yi me?

Nobel ku mede ƒe 20 hafi Xexemeʋa I dzɔ o. Wozã aʋawɔnu vɔ̃ɖi yeyewo le aʋa sia wɔɣi, siwo dometɔ aɖewo nye tu siwo dana trena ɖe enu, aɖiya, tu siwo me dzo dona le, aʋawɔʋuwo, aʋawɔyameʋuwo, kple ƒugɔmeʋawɔʋuwo. Wowu asrafo siwo ade miliɔn ewo kloe, eye esiwo wu xexlẽme ma ƒe teƒe eve ye xɔ abi. Xexemeʋa I ƒe nugblẽƒe si teƒe mekɔ o ganyɔ ŋutifafadidi ɖe amewo me. Esia na woɖo Dukɔwo ƒe Nubabla anyi. United States Dukplɔla Woodrow Wilson, si xɔ ŋgɔ na eɖoɖo lae xɔ Nobel Ŋutifafa Nunana la le ƒe 1919 me.

Ke hã mɔkpɔkpɔ be aʋawɔwɔ nu ayi zi ɖeka la zu dzodzro esime Xexemeʋã II dzɔ le ƒe 1939 me. Le go geɖe me la, esia dziŋɔ wu Xexemeʋa I sasasã. Aʋa sia wɔɣie Adolf Hitler keke Nobel ƒe mɔ̃ɖaŋudɔwɔƒe si nɔ Krümmel ɖe enu wòzu aʋawɔnuwɔƒe gãtɔ siwo  nɔ Germany dometɔ ɖeka, si me dɔwɔla 9,000 nɔ. Emegbe le aʋaa ƒe nuwuwu la, Dukɔ Siwo Wɔ Ðeka ƒe aʋawɔyameʋuwo da bɔmb siwo wu akpe ɖeka ɖe Nobel ƒe mɔ̃ɖaŋudɔwɔƒea hegbãe keŋkeŋ. Nukutɔe la, Nobel ƒe nutovɛ dzie wonɔ te ɖo wɔ bɔmb mawo.

Menye xexemeʋa eve koe dzɔ le ƒe alafa si va yi me le Nobel ƒe ku megbe o, ke boŋ aʋa suesue gbogbo aɖewo hã dzɔ. Aʋawɔnuwo va bɔ le ɣeyiɣi mawo me, eye ŋɔdzi va nɔ wo dometɔ aɖewo ŋu vevie. Bu aʋawɔnu siwo nɔ tsia dzi le ƒe bla nane siwo va yi tso esime Nobel ku dometɔ ʋɛ aɖewo ŋu kpɔ.

Tu Suewo kple aʋawɔnu siwo mekpena o. Esiawoe nye asituiwo, tuwo, bɔmbwo, tu siwo wodana trena ɖe nu, aprimwo kple aʋawɔnu bubu siwo nya tsɔna. Tu suewo kple aʋawɔnu siwo mekpena o la mexɔ asi o, wo dzadzraɖo mesesẽ o, eye wo zazã le bɔbɔe gɔ̃ hã.

Ðe aʋawɔnu siawo ƒe anyinɔnɔ—kple ŋɔdzi si wodona na dumevi dzrowo—tsi aʋawɔwɔ nua? Kpao! Michael Klare ŋlɔ ɖe agbalẽ si nye Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists me be aʋawɔtu siwo nya tsɔna va zu “aʋawɔnu vevi siwo wozã le aʋa dziŋɔ akpa gãtɔ siwo wowɔ le Dukɔwo Dome Nyaʋiʋlia megbe la me.” Le nyateƒe me, afɔku siwo dzɔ le aʋa siwo wowɔ nyitsɔ laa me ƒe 90 le alafa me la tso tu suewo kple aʋawɔnu siwo nya tsɔna zazã gbɔ. Le ƒe 1990-awo ɖeɖeko me la wotsɔe wu amesiwo wu miliɔn ene. Le go geɖe me la, sɔhɛ siwo mexɔ asrafowo ƒe hehe o eye aʋawɔsewo dzidada metsoa dzika ƒo na o lae wɔ tu suewo ŋudɔ.

Tomebɔmbwo. Tso ƒe alafa 20 lia ƒe nuwuwu lɔƒo la, tomebɔmb wua amesiwo ade 70 le mama dedie nu gbesiagbe alo tsrɔ̃a woƒe ŋutinuwo ɖa! Wo dometɔ akpa gãtɔ nyea dumevi dzrowo ke menye asrafowo o. Zi geɖe la, menye amewuwu tae wozãna tomebɔmbwo ɖo o, ke boŋ be woatsɔ ado nuwɔametɔ ame, eye woado vɔvɔ̃ kple ŋɔdzi na amesiwo ŋu wogblẽa nu le.

Ele eme baa be, wodze agbagba geɖe le ƒe siwo va yi nyitsɔ laa me be woatsɔ aɖe tomebɔmbwo ɖa ya. Gake ame aɖewo gblɔna be le tomebɔmb ɖeka ɖesiaɖe si woɖe ɖa megbe la, wogaɖia 20 bubu ɖe tome eye tomebɔmb siwo ade  miliɔn 60 ye woɖi ɖe tome le xexeame godoo. Togbɔ be tomebɔmbwo mate ŋu ade vovototo asrafo ƒe afɔɖoƒe kple ɖevi si le fefem le gbedzi tɔ dome o hã la, meɖe tomebɔmbwɔwɔ ƒe dzi le ƒo na ewɔlawo o alo na wodzudzɔ aʋawɔnu vɔ̃ɖi siawo zazã o.

Nukliaʋawɔnuwo. Nukliaʋawɔnu toto vɛ nye zi gbãtɔ si wowɔ nane si ate ŋu agbã dugã blibo aɖe keŋkeŋ le sɛkɛnd ʋɛ aɖewo megbe le asrafohawo ƒe aʋa aɖeke mawɔmawɔ me. Le kpɔɖeŋu me, bu tsɔtsrɔ̃ dziŋɔ si tɔgbe dzɔ esime woda atɔm bɔmb ɖe Hiroshima kple Nagasaki le ƒe 1945 me ŋu kpɔ. Keklẽ sẽŋu la gbã ŋku na ame aɖewo. Eƒe aɖi wu ame bubuwo. Dzo kple dzoxɔxɔ wu ame geɖewo. Amesiwo katã ku le dugã eve siawo katã me ƒe xexlẽme ade 300,000 kloe!

Nyateƒee, ame aɖewo ake ɖi agblɔ be bɔmb dada ɖe dugã eve mawo me wɔe be ame geɖe meku abe alesi woakui ne ɖe wowɔ aʋa la boŋ kple tu bubu siwo menye nuklia tɔ o. Ke hã ame gbogbowo ƒe kuku dovoɖiname ma na amewo te nya ƒoƒo ɖe sewɔlawo nu be woaxe mɔ ɖe aʋawɔnu dziŋɔ siawo nu. Nyateƒee, ame geɖewo va le vɔvɔ̃m be amegbetɔwo wɔ nusi woatsɔ atsrɔ̃ wo ɖokui.

Ðe nukliaʋawɔnu siwo wowɔ wɔe be wokpɔa mɔ na ŋutifafa? Ame aɖewo gblɔ be ẽ.  Wogblɔna be ƒe blaatɔ̃ kple edzivɔ enye esia va yi si womegazã aʋawɔnu sẽŋu sia le aʋawɔwɔ me kpɔ o. Ke hã Nobel ƒe kakaɖedzi be aʋawɔnu si ate ŋu atsrɔ̃ ame geɖewoe aɖe aʋawɔwɔ ɖa la meva eme o, elabena wogawɔa aʋa kple aʋawɔnu siwo menye nukliaʋawɔnuwo o. Tsɔ kpe ɖe eŋu la, Nuklia Ŋuti Ðoɖodzikpɔkɔmiti gblɔ be, nukliaʋawɔnu akpe nanewo le klalo hena zazã ɣesiaɣi. Eye le ɣeyiɣi sia si me wotsi dzodzodzoe ɖe ŋɔdzinu siwo le edzi yim ŋu vevie la, ame geɖewo le vɔvɔ̃m ɖe nusi ava dzɔ ŋu ne nukliaʋawɔnu aɖe va ge ɖe ame “vɔ̃ɖiawo” ƒe asi me. Le “amesiwo dze” gome kura gɔ̃ hã la, vɔvɔ̃ li be ŋuɖeɖinuwɔna ɖeka aɖe ate ŋu ahe nukliafɔku va xexeame. Eme kɔ ƒã be menye ŋutifafa siae nɔ susu me na Nobel ku ɖe aʋawɔnu vɔ̃ɖiwo ŋu o.

Dɔlékuiwo kple aɖinuwo zazã le aʋawɔwɔ me. Wozãa dɔlékui wuame abe anthrax, si nye nyiwo ƒe dɔléle ƒomevi aɖe, kple dɔlékui, abe sakpate ene le dɔlékuiʋawɔwɔ me. Ŋɔdzi le sakpate ŋu ŋutɔ elabena wote ŋu xɔnɛ le ame ŋu kabakaba. Aɖinu siwo wozãna le aʋawɔwɔ me hã doa ŋɔdzi na ame, le kpɔɖeŋu me abe aɖiya ene. Aɖi siawo nɔa nɔnɔme vovovo me, eye togbɔ be wode se ɖe wo nu ƒe bla nanewo enye esia hã la, esia mena wodzudzɔ ezazã o.

Ðe ametsrɔ̃nu vɔ̃ɖi siawo kple ŋɔdzi si le wo ŋu na amewo wɔ nu abe alesi Nobel gblɔ ɖi enea—be “ŋɔdzi alé wo eye woaɖe woƒe asrafohawo ɖaa”? Ðeko wodzi woƒe vɔvɔ̃ ɖe edzi boŋ be woava zã aʋawɔnuawo gbeɖeka—ate ŋu anye amesiwo menya eŋuti naneke o gɔ̃ hã. Ƒe ewo kple edzivɔ enye esia la, United States  Aʋawɔnuwo Ðeɖeɖa Habɔbɔ ƒe zimenɔla gblɔ be: “Amesiame ate ŋu awɔ aɖi si wozãna le aʋawɔwɔ me le eƒe ʋudaɖoƒe, ne atikedodokpɔ ŋuti sidzedze sue aɖe koe wòsrɔ̃ le sukukɔkɔ gɔ̃ hã.”

Ðikeke mele eme o be ƒe alafa 20 lia mee aʋawɔwɔ dziŋɔwo dzɔ le wu ɣeyiɣi bubu ɖesiaɖe. Azɔ le ƒe alafa 21 lia ƒe gɔmedzedze me la, edze abe kakaɖedzi meva li be ŋutifafa ava o—vevietɔ esi ŋɔdzidonamelawo va dze New York City kple Washington, D.C., dzi le September 11, 2001, dzi megbe. Steven Levy ŋlɔ le Newsweek magazine me be: “Ekpɔtɔ vie atse mable ame aɖeke wòabia nenye be mɔ̃ɖaŋu gãwo ŋudɔwɔwɔ mava zu ŋusẽdodo nugbegblẽwɔwɔ le esi teƒe be woanye viɖe boŋ o hãa.” Egblɔ kpee be: “Ameka sie aɖaŋu si woatsɔ akpɔ nɔnɔme ma gbɔ anɔ? Enye amegbetɔ ƒe nɔnɔme be wòanɔ ŋgɔyiyi ŋu ko bum ɖaa ke emegbe eva nɔa nyawo biam. Esi míeŋea aɖaba ƒua [afɔku aɖe si míekpɔ mɔ na be ate ŋu adzɔ o] dzi tae wodzɔna ɖo.”

Vaseɖe fifia la, ŋutinya fia mí be tu dziŋɔ kple aʋawɔnu vɔ̃ɖi siwo woto vɛ la mehe ŋutifafa va xexe sia me o. Ekema dzodzroe mɔkpɔkpɔ na xexeame ƒe ŋutifafa nyea?

[Aɖaka/Nɔnɔmetata siwo le axa 8]

Asitɔtrɔ le Nitroglycerin ƒe Ŋusẽ Ŋu

Italytɔ atikedokpɔla Ascanio Sobrero ke ɖe nitroglycerin, si nye ami toto aɖe, si tea ŋu wóna ŋu le ƒe 1846 me. Wokpɔ be afɔku le amia ŋu. Ahuhɔ̃e gbã de abi Sobrero ƒe mo vevie esime amia wó, mlɔeba la eva dzudzɔ eŋudɔwɔwɔ. Gawu la, kuxi aɖe nɔ amia ŋu si gbɔ Sobrero mete ŋu kpɔ o: Ne wokɔe ɖi eye wotsɔ zũ tu edzi la, akpa si zũa dze la koe wóna, hegblẽa akpa mamlɛa ya ɖi.

Nobel va kpɔ kuxia gbɔ esime wòto mɔnu nyuitɔ aɖe, si me ɖu sue aɖe ƒe wowó agate ŋu ana gbogbo aɖewo hã nawó la vɛ. Emegbe le ƒe 1865 me la, Nobel to nugoe si wóna—si nye mercury si wotsɔ de go aɖe si me nitroglycerin le me eye wotɔ dzoe.

Gake afɔku gakpɔtɔ nɔ nitroglycerin ŋudɔ wɔwɔ me. Le kpɔɖeŋu me, le ƒe 1864 me la, dzo aɖe si wó le Nobel ƒe dɔwɔƒea si le Stockholm godo la wu ame atɔ̃—siwo dome Nobel tsɛ, Emil hã nɔ. Dzo fiã Nobel ƒe mɔ̃ɖaŋudɔwɔƒe si nɔ Krümmel, Germany zi eve. Emegbe ame aɖewo nɔ amia zãm abe akaɖimi, afɔkpa ŋu mi, alo abe mɔ̃memi na agbatsɔʋuwo ƒe afɔwo ene—eye ewɔ nuvevi ame geɖe. Ne wotsɔe le towo gbãm gɔ̃ hã la amia ƒe ɖewo te ŋu gena ɖe gbagbãƒewo eye wòhea afɔkuwo vɛ emegbe.

Le ƒe 1867 me la, Nobel trɔ amia wòzu kɔ esime wòtsɔ kieselguhr, si mewóna o, si me do viwo le la tsaka kple nitroglycerin. Nobel na ŋkɔe be dynamite tso Helagbe me nya dynamis me, si gɔme enye “ŋusẽ.” Togbɔ be Nobel va to nu bubu siwo wóna sesĩe wu vɛ emegbe hã la, wobua dynamite be enye nu vevi siwo woto vɛ la dometɔ ɖeka.

Nyateƒee, menye aʋawɔwɔ me koe wozãa nu wowó siwo Nobel to vɛ la le o. Le kpɔɖeŋu me, wozãe tsɔ wɔ akpa vevi aɖe le St. Gotthard tomemɔwo ɖeɖe me (1872-82), wozãe tsɔ gbã tsi gɔme kpewo le New York ƒe East River me (1876-1885), eye wozãe tsɔ ɖe Corinth Tsimɔ le Greece (1881-93). Ke hã tso esime woto dynamite vɛ ko la, wova nyae enumake be enye dɔwɔnu si wotsɔ tsrɔ̃a nui.

[Nɔnɔmetata]

Colombia kpovitɔwo ƒe dɔwɔƒe si wotsrɔ̃ kple tu si wotsɔ “dynamite” wɔ

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

© Reuters NewMedia Inc./CORBIS

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 4]

Nobel ku mede ƒe 20 hafi wozã aʋawɔnu vɔ̃ɖi yeyewo le Xexemeʋa I wɔɣi o

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

U.S. National Archives photo

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 6]

Amesiwo ŋu tomebɔmb gblẽ nu le le Cambodia, Iraq, kple Azerbaijan

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UN/DPI Photo 186410C by P.S. Sudhakaran

UN/DPI Photo 158314C by J. Isaac

UN/DPI Photo by Armineh Johannes

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 6]

Nuklia Ŋuti Ðoɖodzikpɔkɔmiti gblɔ be, nukliaʋawɔnu akpe nanewo le klalo hena zazã ɣesiaɣi

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

UNITED NATIONS/PHOTO BY SYGMA

[Nɔnɔmetata siwo le axa 7]

Ame geɖewo va de dzesi aɖitike siwo wozãna le aʋa me ƒe vɔ̃ɖivɔ̃ɖi esime woda aɖiya si nye “sarin” ɖe Tokyo ƒe tomemɔ dzi le ƒe 1995 me

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Asahi Shimbun/Sipa Press

[Nɔnɔmetata Tsoƒe si le axa 5]

UN/DPI Photo 158198C by J. Isaac