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Dugãwo—Nukatae Woɖo Xaxa Me?

Dugãwo—Nukatae Woɖo Xaxa Me?

 Dugãwo—Nukatae Woɖo Xaxa Me?

“Mina míatso du, eye míatu mɔ̃ kɔkɔ aɖe, si tame natɔ dziƒo, . . . bena míagakaka ɖe anyigba blibo la katã dzi o!”—Mose I, 11:4.

NYA siawo, siwo wogblɔ ƒe 4,000 kple edzivɔe nye si va yi la, ka nya ta tso Babel dugã la tsotso ŋu.

Babel, si wova yɔ emegbe be Babilon, nɔ Sinear, si nye tagbanyigba wɔnu tsã, le Mesopotamia. Gake to vovo na ame geɖe ƒe nukpɔsusu la, menye eyae nye dugã gbãtɔ si ŋu woƒo nu tsoe le Biblia me o. Le nyateƒe me la, wodze dugãwo tsotso gɔme do ŋgɔ na Noa ƒe ŋkekea me Tsiɖɔɖɔa. Dugã gbãtɔ si dze le nuŋlɔɖi me tsola enye Kain, amewula la. (Mose I, 4:17) Ðewohĩ dugã sia, si woyɔ be Henox la, anya lolo vie wu du aɖe si ŋu wotɔ kpɔ ɖo alo kɔƒedu. Gake dugã ŋutɔe Babel ya nye—enye alakpasubɔsubɔ du ɖedzesi aɖe si me woɖo mawusubɔsubɔ ƒe mɔ̃ kɔkɔ aɖe tutu anyi le. Gake Babel kple eƒe mɔ̃ kɔkɔ si ŋu nya míenya la tutu nye tsitretsitsi ɖe Mawu ŋu ŋutɔŋutɔ. (Mose I, 9:7) Eyata le Biblia ƒe nya nu la, Mawu ge ɖe nyaa me eye wòtɔtɔ gbe na xɔa tulawo, si he woƒe mawusubɔsubɔ ɖoɖoanyi ƒe didi vevie la va nuwuwui. Mose I, 11:5-9 gblɔ be Mawu “na bena, wokaka tso afima ɖe anyigba blibo la katã dzi.”

Mewɔ nuku o be esia na wote dugãwo tsotso ɖe teƒeteƒewo. Enye nyateƒe be dugãwo nye bebeƒe tso futɔwo ƒe amedzidzedze nu. Dugãwo ƒe anyinɔnɔ wɔnɛ be agbledelawo kpɔa teƒe daa woƒe agblemenuwo ɖo kple afisi woadzra wo le. Asiƒleƒewo totovɛ hã ʋua mɔ na dugã me nɔla geɖe be woate ŋu awɔ dɔ bubuwo tsɔ wu agbledede ko. The Rise of Cities gblɔ be: “Esi amesiwo va le dugãwo me nya vo tso nusi woaɖu ko didi ƒe agbenɔnɔ me la, woate ŋu adze asinudɔ aɖewo sɔsrɔ̃ gɔme ahawɔ nuzazã aɖewo akɔ ɖi: kusilɔlɔ̃, zememe, ɖetitetre, avɔlɔlɔ̃, afɔkpatɔtɔ, atikpakpa kple gliɖoɖo—nusianu si ƒe asi woate ŋu atsa ko.”

Dugãwo me va nye teƒe nyui aɖe si woatsa nusiawo ƒe asi le. Bu dɔwuame sesẽ si va Egipte si ŋu Biblia ƒo nu tsoe ŋu kpɔ. Yosef, si nye dɔnunɔlawo ƒe tatɔ la kpɔe be ade ye dzi be yeaƒo ameawo nu ƒu ɖe dugãwo me. Nukatae? Edze ƒã be esia na wònɔ bɔbɔe be wòte ŋu ma nuɖuɖu si susɔ la pɛpɛpɛ.—Mose I, 47:21.

Dugãwo ƒe anyinɔnɔ na hã be amewo dome kadodo kple dɔwɔwɔ nyo ɖe edzi le ɣeyiɣi siwo me lɔriwo mebɔ o me. Esia hã he tɔtrɔwo va amewo ƒe agbenɔnɔ kple kɔnuwo me kabakaba. Dugãwo va zu teƒe siwo wotoa nuwo vɛ  le eye wona wodze mɔ̃ɖaŋunuwo toto vɛ. Esi wònɔ bɔbɔe be amewo nado nukpɔsusu yeyewo ɖe wo nɔewo gbɔ ta la, dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunya, mawusubɔsubɔ, kple xexemenunya te mo dodoɖa.

Didi Siwo Meva Eme O

Le egbeɣeyiɣiwo me la, dugãwo ƒe anyinɔnɔ yi edzi na nuwo de amewo dzi le go siawo ke me. Eyata mewɔ nuku o be ame miliɔn geɖe yi edzi le dugãwo me yim—vevietɔ le dukɔ siwo me agbenɔnɔ va le sesẽm ŋutɔ le kɔƒeduwo me. Gake le ame geɖe siwo ʋu yi dugãwo me gome la, alesi wosusui be agbenɔnɔa ade yewo dzi wu la meva eme na wo o. Agbalẽ si nye Vital Signs 1998 gblɔ be: “Le numekuku aɖe si Amewo ƒe Agbɔsɔsɔ ƒe Aɖaŋudeha wɔ nyitsɔ laa nu la, agbenɔnɔ le dukɔ madeŋgɔwo ƒe dugãwo me yi to egbea kura wu alesi wòle le kɔƒenutowo me.” Nukatae wòle alea?

Henry G. Cisneros ŋlɔ le agbalẽ si nye The Human Face of the Urban Environment me be: “Ne amewo va ƒo ƒu ɖe du ɖeka aɖe me kpaŋkpaŋ la, woƒe kuxiwo dzina ɖe edzi kabakaba. . . . Ame dahewo ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ, vevietɔ ɖe dua ƒe akpa aɖe koŋ hea dɔmakpɔwɔe, agba zuzu na dziɖuɖu ɣeyiɣi didi ƒe dzidziɖedzi, lãmesẽkuxiwo ƒe dzidziɖedzi, kple esi vɔ̃ɖi wu la, nuvlowɔwɔ ƒe dzidziɖedzi vɛ.” Agbalẽ si nye Mega-city Growth and the Future hã gblɔ nya ma tɔgbe be: “Amewo ƒe ʋuʋu yi dugãwo me kpaŋkpaŋ hea dɔmakpɔmakpɔ kple dɔnyuimakpɔwɔe ƒe kuxi gãwo vɛ zi geɖe, elabena dɔwɔƒewo mate ŋu ana dɔ dɔdila siwo ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ le dzidzim ɖe edzi ŋutɔ la o.”

Ðevi ablɔdzitsilawo ƒe dzidziɖedzi nye kpeɖodzi wɔnublanui be ahedada kolikoli ye le dukɔ madeŋgɔwo ƒe dugãwo me. Le akɔntabubu aɖewo nu la, ɖevi ablɔdzitsila miliɔn 30 sɔŋ ye le xexeame! Agbalẽ si nye Mega-city Growth and the Future gblɔ be: “Hiãkame kple kuxi bubuwo gblẽ nu le ƒomekadodowo ŋu ale be wòva hiã be ɖevi ablɔdzitsilawo nakpɔ wo ɖokui dzi.” Gbeɖuɖɔlɔlɔ, nubiabia, alo agbatetsɔtsɔ le asiwo me ye nye dɔ ɖevi siawo wɔna hafi kpɔa nu ɖuna.

Nɔnɔme Sesẽ Bubuwo

Hiãkame ate ŋu ahe nuvlowɔwɔ vɛ. Le Anyiehe Amerika dugã aɖe si wotso le egbegbe xɔtuɖaŋu nu me la, nuvlowɔwɔ va le agbogbo dom ale gbegbe be fesre kple ʋɔtru nu xenu hamehame, siwo wotsɔ gakpowo wɔ va xɔ dugã bliboa me. Tso dukɔmevi kesinɔtɔwo dzi va ɖo hiãtɔwo dzi la, wole gakpɔwo tɔm tsɔ le woƒe nunɔamesiwo kple wo nɔƒewo ta kpɔmee. Esia wɔe be wova zu  xadzamenɔlawo. Ame aɖewo gɔ̃ hã tɔa gakpɔawo hafi wua woƒe xɔwo tutu nu.

Amewo ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ kpaŋkpaŋ nana hã be womete ŋu kpɔa nuhiahiã veviwo abe tsi kple dzadzɛnyenye gbɔ tututu le dugãwo me o. Wobu akɔnta be le Asia dugã aɖe me la, dugbadza nugododeƒe 500,000 ye hiã. Gake numekuku aɖe si wowɔ nyitsɔ laa ɖee fia be afɔdzi 200 koe wokpɔ!

Nu bubu si hã dzi mele be míaŋe aɖaba aƒui o ye nye alesi amewo ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ ɖe du aɖe me akpa gblẽa nu le nutoa ŋui zi geɖe. Esi dugãwo ƒe liƒowo le kekem ɖe edzi la, agbledeƒe meganɔa kpuiƒe o. Federico Mayor, si nye Dukɔ Ƒoƒuawo ƒe Agbalẽsɔsrɔ̃, Dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunya, Kple Dekɔnu Nyawo Gbɔkpɔha ƒe dɔdzikpɔlagã tsã gblɔ be: “Dugãwo xɔa elektrikŋusẽ ƒe akpa gãtɔ, tsi zazã yia ŋgɔ boo, eye nuɖuɖu kple dɔwɔnu gbogbo aɖewo yia nugbe le wo me. . . . Nu gblẽna le anyigbaa ŋutɔ ŋu le dugãwo me elabena megatea ŋu kpɔa nuhiahiãwo gbɔ alo teƒe nanɔ edzi woawɔ nu ɖo o.”

Dugã me Kuxiwo le Ɣetoɖoƒe Dukɔwo Me

Nɔnɔmea mavloe le Ɣetoɖoƒe-dukɔwo me nenema ya o, gake dugã me kuxiwo li kokoko. Le kpɔɖeŋu me, agbalẽ si nye The Crisis of America’s Cities gblɔ be: “Ŋutasẽnuwɔna si do fievo ye le Amerika dugãwo me egbea. . . . Ŋutasẽnuwɔwɔ le edzi yim le Amerika dugãwo me ale gbegbe be nyadzɔdzɔgbalẽ siwo ƒoa nu tso lãmesẽnyawo ŋu dze egɔme le teƒe geɖe gblẽm ɖi le nyadzɔdzɔgbalẽawo me afisi woaŋlɔ ŋutasẽnudzɔdzɔwo ɖo elabena eyae va zu dumeviwo ƒe kuxi gãtɔwo dometɔ ɖeka le míaƒe ŋkekea me.” Ele eme baa be ŋutasẽnuwɔwɔ nye kuxi le dugã geɖe me le xexea katã me ya.

Alesi dugãmegbenɔnɔ le gbegblẽmee nye susu siwo ta megadzroa dɔtɔwo be yewoaɖo dɔwɔƒewo ɖe dugãwo me ɖo o dometɔ ɖeka. Agbalẽ si nye The Human Face of the Urban Environment gblɔ be: “Woʋu dɔwɔƒewo yi du suewo me alo duta, wotu adzɔnuwɔƒewo, ale wogblẽ ‘anyigba si dome gblẽ’ la ɖi—xɔ gbɔlowo tsi anyigba ƒoɖiawo dzi, woɖi aɖiɖuɖɔwo ɖe tome, si wɔe be anyigbaa meganyo woawɔ naneke kura ɖe edzi o.” Esia wɔe be le dugã geɖe me la, ame dahewo sɔŋ ye va nɔa teƒe siwo “wometsɔa ɖeke le nutomekuxiwo gbɔ kpɔkpɔ me le o—afisiwo tsigbegblẽtoƒewo meganyo o le; afisiwo tsi dɔwɔƒewo metsyɔa tsiwo me nyuie le o; afisiwo woli kɔ gbeɖuɖɔ ɖo eye lã gblẽnuwo va dzi ɖo fũ heva nɔ gegem ɖe aƒewo me le; afisiwo vidzĩwo foa aŋɔ le xɔ gbagbãwo ŋu nɔa ɖuɖum le . . . afisiwo ame aɖeke metsɔ ɖeke le eme na nɔvia le o.” Nuvlowɔwɔ, ŋutasesẽ, kple dziɖeleameƒo ye bɔ le nuto sia tɔgbe me.

Gakpe ɖe eŋu la, nuhiahiã veviwo gbɔ kpɔkpɔ na dumeviwo le sesẽm le Ɣetoɖoƒe dugãwo me. Tso keke ƒe 1981 me ke la, agbalẽŋlɔla siwo nye Pat Choate kple Susan Walter ŋlɔ agbalẽ aɖe hetsɔ tanya wɔdɔɖeamedzi sia nɛ be America in Ruins—The Decaying Infrastructure. Wogblɔ le eme be: “Amerika ƒe dugbadza nuzazãwo le gbegblẽm kabakaba wu alesi wole wodzram ɖoe.” Agbalẽa ŋlɔlawo tsi dzi vevie le alesi tɔdzisasrã geɖe nyunyɔe, lɔrimɔwo le gbegblẽmee, kple alesi tsigbegblẽtoƒewo le gbagbãm le dugãwo mee ta.

Ƒe 20 megbe la, dugãwo abe New York City ene ƒe dugbadza nuzazãwo kpɔtɔ le gbegblẽm ɖe edzi. New York Magazine me nyati aɖe ɖɔ Tometsimɔ Gã Etɔ̃lia ɖeɖedɔa. Enye dɔ si wɔm wole ƒe 30 aɖewoe nye sia, eye woyɔe be tometsimɔ gãtɔ kekeake ɖeka si ɖem wole le Ɣetoɖoƒe Nutome. Ga si woagblẽ ɖe eŋu ade United States dɔlar biliɔn atɔ̃. Ne wowu tometsimɔa ɖeɖe nu la, tsi nyui galɔn biliɔn ɖeka ato eme aɖo New York City gbesiagbe. Agbalẽa ŋlɔla gblɔ be: “Gake nusita wole do sia gbegbe ɖem ɖo koe nye be woaɖe tsimɔ si me tsi ato akpe ɖe pɔmpi siwo li fifia la ŋu, be woate ŋu adzra wo ɖo zi gbãtɔ tso esime woɖe wo le ƒe alafa la ƒe gɔmedzedze ke.” The New York Times me nyatia aɖe gblɔ be wobu akɔnta be nuzazã mamlɛ siwo le gbegblẽm le dugãa me—eƒe keteke tomemɔwo, eƒe tsi pɔmpiwo, eƒe lɔrimɔwo, eƒe tɔdzisasrãwo dzadzraɖo axɔ dɔlar biliɔn 90.

Menye New York City koe wòsesẽ le be woakpɔ nusiwo hiã gbɔ o. Le nyateƒe me la, nu gbogbo aɖewo na be womete ŋu le nusiawo gbɔ kpɔm le dugã geɖe me o. Le February 1998 me la, nu gã aɖe gblẽ le Auckland, New  Zealand ŋu kwasiɖa eve kple edzivɔ sɔŋ esi eƒe elektrikŋusẽnamɔ̃ gbe dzo. Amesiwo le Melbourne, Australia, nɔ anyi ŋkeke 13 tsi dzodzoe mazãmazãe esi wotsi mɔ̃ siwo me gas tona, le nane si gblẽ le mɔ̃a ŋu ta.

Emegbe kuxi bubu aɖe li, si le dugãwo katã kloe me—si nye ʋuwo ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ. Moshe Safdie, si nye xɔtuɖaŋunyala gblɔ be: “Kuxi gã aɖe—masɔmasɔ aɖe—le dugãwo ƒe lolome kple mɔzɔɖoɖo si wozãna le wo me la dome. . . . Eva hiã be dugã xoxowo natrɔ ɖe ʋuwo ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ le woƒe asiduwo me ƒe kuxia ƒe lolome ŋu, si ŋu womebu le wo tsoɣi o.” The New York Times gblɔ be le dugãwo abe Cairo, Bangkok, kple São Paulo ene me la, ʋuwo ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ ƒe kuxia “li ɣesiaɣi.”

Togbɔ be kuxi siawo katã li hã la, edze abe ʋuʋu dzi ko amewo le le dugãwo me yim ene. Nyati aɖe si dze le The UNESCO Courier me gblɔe ale “be esɔ alo mesɔ o, edze abe dugãwo mee ame akpɔ ŋgɔyiyi kple ablɔɖe le ene, enye mɔnukpɔkpɔ ƒe amesisusu ƒe dzodzro, si nye amenublenu si ŋu womate ŋu atsi tre ɖo o.” Gake etsɔme ka tututue li na xexeame dugãwo? Ðe woƒe kuxiwo gbɔ kpɔnu ŋutɔŋutɔ aɖe lia?

[Nya si ɖe dzesi si le axa 5]

“Amewo ƒe ʋuʋu yi dugãwo me kpaŋkpaŋ hea dɔmakpɔmakpɔ kple dɔnyuimakpɔwɔe ƒe kuxi gãwo vɛ zi geɖe”

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 7]

Ʋuwo ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ nye kuxi le dugã geɖe me

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 7]

Ðevi ablɔdzitsila miliɔn geɖe ƒe nuhiahiãwo kpɔ woa ŋutɔwo ŋkume

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 7]

Dugã me nɔla geɖe ƒe mɔkpɔkpɔ be agbea ade yewo dzi wu le afima meva eme o