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Biblia—Blemaŋutinya Akuaku Yea?

Biblia—Blemaŋutinya Akuaku Yea?

 Biblia—Blemaŋutinya Akuaku Yea?

WOGBE nya na dziɖulawo. Woka mo na nunɔlawo. Wohe nya ɖe dukɔ hahoo ŋu le woƒe nuvɔ̃ɖiwɔwɔ ta. Woʋu go woa ŋutɔwo ƒe vodadawo kple nuvɔ̃wo gaglãa gɔ̃ hã. Wotɔ ŋku wo heti wo yome, eye wowu wo dometɔ aɖewo gɔ̃ hã le nyateƒea gbɔgblɔ kple eŋɔŋlɔ ta. Amekawoe wonye? Biblia me nyagblɔɖilawoe, amesiwo dometɔ geɖe ŋlɔ Ŋɔŋlɔ Kɔkɔeawo ƒe akpa aɖe.—Mateo 23:35-37.

Page Smith ŋlɔ ɖe eƒe agbalẽ si nye The Historian and History me be: “[Hebritɔwo] ŋlɔa woƒe kalẽtɔwo kple nuvlowɔlawo, woa ŋutɔwo kple woƒe futɔwo siaa ŋutinya naneke maɣlamaɣlae, elabena Mawu ƒe ŋkumee wonɔ nyaawo ŋlɔm le eye viɖe aɖeke manɔ ameflunu wɔwɔ me na wo o, ɖe wòagblẽ nu geɖe le wo ŋu boŋ.” Smith ŋlɔ hã be “nuŋlɔɖi siwo ku ɖe Mawu ƒe dukɔ tiatia la ƒe fukpekpewo kple dziɖuɖuwo ŋu . . . léa dzi na ame ŋutɔ ne míetsɔe sɔ kple Siria alo Egipte fia aʋadziɖulawo ƒe ɣeyiɣikɔntabubu ŋuti nuŋlɔɖi siwo xexlẽ tea ɖeɖi ame ŋu. Hebritɔ ŋutinyaŋlɔlaawo ke ɖe nu vevitɔ kekeake siwo hiã le ŋutinyaŋɔŋlɔ me ŋu—eyae nye be woƒo nu tso ame ŋutɔŋutɔ siwo nɔ anyi kpɔ, kple woƒe vodada kple kpɔtsotsowo katã ŋu.”

Biblia-ŋlɔlawo tsɔ ŋuɖɔɖo blibo ŋlɔ nyawo wòsɔ nyuie hã. Esi agbalẽŋlɔla Werner Keller nɔ te ɖe eƒe ŋutinya kple blematomenukuku ŋuti nunya dzi dzro Biblia me vɔ megbe la, egblɔ ɖe eƒe agbalẽ si nye The Bible as History ƒe ŋgɔdonya me be: “Le kpeɖodzinya gbogbo siwo ŋu kakaɖedzi kple ɖaseɖiɖi nyui le siwo li fifia ta la, . . . nyagbɔgblɔ ɖeka sia gavaa susu me nam be: ‘Biblia me nyawo nye nyateƒe!’”

Ŋutinya Wɔdɔɖeamedzi si me Nufiame Nyuiwo Le

Biblia-ŋlɔla akpa gãtɔ nye ame tsɛwo—agbledelawo, alẽkplɔlawo, kple tɔƒodelawo. Ke hã la, nusiwo woŋlɔ le ɣeyiɣi ƒe didime si wu ƒe 1,600 me la kpɔ ŋusẽ ɖe ame geɖe dzi wu agbalẽ bubu ɖesiaɖe, eɖanye le blema loo alo egbegbe o. Gakpe ɖe eŋu la, wotsi tre ɖe woƒe nuŋlɔɖiwo ŋu le goawo katã me, gake wodo kpoe. (Yesaya 40:8; Petro I, 1:25) Egbea la, woate ŋu axlẽ Biblia bliboa katã alo eƒe akpa aɖewo le gbegbɔgblɔ siwo ade 2,200 me—si sɔ gbɔ sasasã wu agbalẽ bubu ɖesiaɖe tɔ! Nukatae Biblia ɖe dzesi nenema gbegbe ɖo? Nya siwo gbɔna siwo míeyɔ akpe ɖe mía ŋu míaɖo nyabiabia ma ŋu.

“Ŋɔŋlɔ sia ŋɔŋlɔ, si tso Mawu ƒe Gbɔgbɔ me la, enyo hã na nufiafia, na mokaka, na ɖɔɖɔɖo, na amehehe, si le dzɔdzɔenyenye me, bene Mawu ƒe ame la nade blibo, eye wòanɔ dzadzraɖoɖi hena dɔ nyui sia dɔ nyui wɔwɔ.”—Timoteo II, 3:16, 17.

“Nusi ke woŋlɔ ɖi tsã la, woŋlɔe le míaƒe nufiafia ta, bene míatsɔ ŋɔŋlɔawo ƒe dzidodo kple akɔfafa akpɔ mɔkpɔkpɔ.”—Romatɔwo 15:4.

“Nusiawo katã va ame mawo [Israel-viwo] dzi abe kpɔɖeŋu ene, eye woŋlɔe ɖi, bene wòanye nuxɔxlɔ̃ hena mí [Kristotɔwo] amesiwo dzi xexe sia me ƒe nuwuwu va ɖo la.”—Korintotɔwo I, 10:11.

Ẽ, esi Biblia nye amesiwo nɔ anyi ŋutɔŋutɔ kpɔ—amesiwo ƒe nu dze Mawu ŋu kple esiwo ƒe nu medze eŋu o—ŋuti nuŋlɔɖi si tso Mawu ƒe gbɔgbɔ me si ta wokpɔ ta la, ede ŋgɔ sasasã  wu agbalẽ bubu ɖesiaɖe. Menye se gbogbo siwo woŋlɔ ɖi le nusiwo woate ŋu awɔ kple nusiwo mele be woawɔ o ŋu loo alo ŋutinya vivi kpui siwo nu woƒo ƒu be woatsɔ ado dzidzɔ na ɖeviwo ko wònye kura o. Enye nyateƒe be Mawu zã amegbetɔwo tsɔ ŋlɔe ya, gake ɖeko esia gade Biblia dzi, eye wòna emenyawo léa dzi na exlẽlawo tso dzidzime yi dzidzime. Blematomenukula William Albright, gblɔ be: “Agbenyuinɔnɔ kple gbɔgbɔ me sidzedze deto siwo le Biblia me, si nye Mawu ƒe ɖeɖefia tɔxɛ na amegbetɔ to amegbetɔ dzi la, gakpɔtɔ nye nyateƒe egbea abe alesi wònɔ ƒe akpe eve alo etɔ̃ enye esi va yi ene.”

Be míawɔ alesi Biblia sɔ woate ŋu atsɔ wɔ dɔe le ɣeyiɣi ɖesiaɖe mee ƒe kpɔɖeŋu la, mina míatrɔ yi amegbetɔ ƒe ŋutinya ƒe gɔmedzedze—afisi Biblia, koe ate ŋu akplɔ mi ayii—ne míade ŋugble tso nufiame vevi aɖewo ŋu le Mose ƒe Agbalẽ Gbãtɔ me.

Blemaŋutinya me Nufiame Siwo Sɔ Ðe Ɣeyiɣia Dzi

Nusiwo Mose ƒe Agbalẽ Gbãtɔa ɖe fia dometɔ ɖekae nye amegbetɔƒomea ƒe gɔmedzedze—eyɔ ŋkɔwo hekpe ɖe nu geɖe ŋu. Le esia gome la, ŋutinyagbalbubu aɖeke megblɔ nyawo twòde esia nu o. Ðewohĩ àbia be: ‘Gake viɖe kae le nunyanya tso mía dzila gbãtɔwo ŋu me na mí egbea?’ Viɖe gã le eme, elabena esi Mose ƒe Agbalẽ Gbãtɔ ɖee fia be amegbetɔwo katã—eɖanye ŋutilã ƒe amadede, to, alo dukɔ ka me wotso o—dzɔ tso dzila mawo ke me la, eɖe nusianu si dzi woanɔ te ɖo ade vovototo ameƒomeviwo me ɖa.—Dɔwɔwɔwo 17:26.

Mose ƒe Agbalẽ Gbãtɔ na agbenyuinɔnɔ ŋuti mɔfiame hã. Eƒo nu tso Sodom, Gomora, kple du siwo ƒo xlã wo ŋu, du siwo Mawu tsrɔ̃ le emenɔlawo ƒe gbɔdɔdɔ ƒe nutovowɔwɔ siwo gbɔ eme ta. (Mose I, 18: 20–19:29) Biblia-gbalẽ si nye Yuda, ƒe kpukpui 7 lia gblɔ be: ‘Wotsɔ Sodom kple Gomora kple du, siwo ƒo xlã wo, siwo wɔ ahasi akpa eye wodze ŋutilã bubu yome la, wɔ nuxlɔ̃amekpɔɖeŋui  na mí.’ Sodom kple Gomoratɔwo mexɔ agbenyuinɔnɔŋutise aɖeke tso Mawu gbɔ o; gake Mawu na dzitsinya wo, abe amegbetɔ ɖesiaɖe ke ene. Eyata Mawu tɔ dzɔ be wòabia akɔnta tso ame mawo si le woƒe nuwɔnawo ta. (Romatɔwo 1:26, 27; 2:14, 15) Nenema ke egbea la, Mawu abia akɔnta tso amegbetɔwo katã si le woƒe nuwɔnawo ta, woɖaxɔ eƒe Nya, Biblia Kɔkɔea, dzi se alo womeɖaxɔe se o.—Tesalonikatɔwo II, 1:8, 9.

Ŋutinya me Nufiame le Agbetsitsi Ŋu

Nutata aɖe si le Tito ƒe Sɔti Tame Gobaa dzi le Roma ɖe alesi Roma-srafowo lɔ nu kɔkɔewo tso Yerusalem-gbedoxɔa mee le dua tsɔtsrɔ̃ le ƒe 70 M.Ŋ. vɔ megbe fia. Wowu Yudatɔ miliɔn ɖeka kple edzivɔ. Gake Kristotɔ toɖolawo tsi agbe, elabena wowɔ ɖe Yesu ƒe nuxlɔ̃amea dzi be: “Ne miekpɔ aʋakɔwo ɖe to ɖe Yerusalem ŋu la, ekema midze sii bena, eƒe aƒedozuɣi ɖo vɔ. Ekema amesiwo le Yudea la, nasi ayi towo dzi, eye amesiwo le etitina la, nadzo ayi, eye amesiwo le agbletawo la, nagayi ɖe eme o. Elabena ŋkeke siawo nye hlɔ̃biabiaŋkekewo.”—Luka 21:20-22.

Menye blemaŋutinya dzro aɖe koe Yerusalem ƒe xaxa la nye o, ke boŋ enye vɔvɔli na nusiwo ava dzɔ le xaxa si lolo wu si ava xexeame katã dzi kpuie la me. Gake le esia hã me la, amewo atsi agbe. Woɖɔ amesiawo be wonye “ameha gã . . . tso dukɔ sia dukɔ kple to sia to kple du sia du kple gbegbɔgblɔ sia gbegbɔgblɔ me.” ‘Wodo go tso xaxa gã la me’ le esi woxɔ Yesu ƒe ʋu si wokɔ ɖi dzi se ta—si nye xɔse si wotu ɖe Biblia me ŋutinya kple nyagblɔɖiwo dzi maʋamaʋãe.—Nyaɖeɖefia 7:9, 14.

Ŋutinya me Nudzɔdzɔ aɖe si Magadzɔ Ake O

Egbea míele Anglo-Amerika Xexemefiaɖuƒe si nye mamlɛtɔ le Biblia ƒe nyagblɔɖi me la ƒe ŋusẽkpɔɣi me. Nusiwo dzɔ le ŋutinya me va yi ɖee fia be, ele nɛ be wòava eƒe nuwuwu abe alesi ko wòdzɔ ɖe esiwo do ŋgɔ nɛ hã dzii ene. Gake le mɔ ka nu? Biblia gblɔ be xexemefiaɖuƒe sia ƒe nuwuwu anɔ etɔxɛ ŋutɔ. Esi Daniel 2:44 nɔ susu hem yi ƒe 1914 M.Ŋ. si nɔ ŋgɔ dzi la, egblɔ le dunyahedziɖuɖu alo “fiaɖuƒe” siwo anɔ dzi ɖum la ŋu be: “Le fia mawo ŋɔli la dziƒo ƒe Mawu la aɖo fiaɖuƒe aɖe anyi, si matsrɔ̃ gbeɖegbeɖe o, eye eƒe fiaɖuƒe mayi ɖe dukɔ bubu aɖeke si me o; agbã fiaɖuƒe mawo katã, eye wòagblẽ wo, ke eya ŋutɔ anɔ anyi tegbee.”

Ẽ, Mawu ƒe Fiaɖuƒe—eƒe dziƒodziɖuɖu si Kristo Yesu anɔ ŋgɔ na—aɖe amegbetɔwo ƒe ameteteɖeanyi dziɖuɖu ƒe nuwɔna ɖesiaɖe ɖa keŋkeŋ le Harmagedon, si anye “xaxa gã” si míeyɔ va yi la taƒoƒo. Esia megbe la, Fiaɖuƒe sia “mayi ɖe dukɔ bubu aɖeke si me o,” si fia be womele emu ge aƒu anyi alo ato akɔdada  dzi aɖɔlii gbeɖe o. Eƒe dziɖuƒe akeke ta “vaseɖe anyigba ƒe mlɔenuwo ke.”—Psalmo 72:8.

Mlɔeba la, alakpasubɔsubɔhawo ƒe ŋusẽkpɔɖeamedzi vɔ̃ɖi, dunyahehe me ameteteɖeanyi kple asitsatsa me ŋukeklẽ si li tso gbaɖegbe ke la nu ayi. Psalmo 72:7 do ŋugbe be: ‘Ame dzɔdzɔe la amie, eye ŋutifafa axɔ aƒe, vaseɖe esime dzinu maganɔ anyi o.’ Mawu ƒe nɔnɔme si ɖe dzesi wu si nye lɔlɔ̃ axɔ ɣletinyigbaa dzi, ke menye ɖokuitɔdidi kple dada o. (Yohanes I, 4:8) Yesu gblɔ be: “Mialɔ̃ mia nɔewo.” Le nya sia gome la, ŋutinyaŋlɔla Will Durant gblɔ be: “Nufiame mamlɛtɔ si mekpɔ tso ŋutinya me sɔ kple Yesu tɔ. . . . Lɔlɔ̃ enye nusi wɔa dɔ wu le xexeame.”

Mawu ƒe lɔlɔ̃ na amegbetɔwo ʋãe wòto eƒe gbɔgbɔ dzi na woŋlɔ Biblia. Eya ɖeka koe na mí numekɔkɔ le tsã, egbegbe, kple etsɔme nudzɔdzɔwo ŋu. Taflatse xɔ eƒe gbedasi si naa agbe la to ɣeyiɣi si sɔ zazã ɖe Biblia sɔsrɔ̃ ŋu me. Eyata be woakpe ɖe amewo ŋu eye be wòanye toɖoɖo Yesu ƒe sedede la, Yehowa Ðasefowo le gbeƒã ɖem “fiaɖuƒeŋutinya nyui sia” na wo haviwo. Madidi o nyanyui sia maganye nyagblɔɖi ko o, ke ava zu nusiwo dzɔ ŋutɔŋutɔ le ŋutinya me la dometɔ ɖeka.—Mateo 24:14.

[Nya si ɖe dzesi si le axa 9]

“Biblia me nyawo nye nyateƒe!”—WERNER KELLER

[Nya si ɖe dzesi si le axa 11]

“Agbenyuinɔnɔ kple gbɔgbɔ me sidzedze deto siwo le Biblia me . . . gakpɔtɔ nye nyateƒe egbea abe alesi wònɔ ƒe akpe eve alo etɔ̃ enye esi va yi ene.”—WILLIAM ALBRIGHT, BLEMATOMENUKULA

[Nɔnɔmetata siwo le axa 9]

Moabitɔwo ƒe Kpe: Edzie woŋlɔ Fia Mesa ƒe ŋutinya si ku ɖe aʋa si Moab kple Israel wɔ ŋu ɖo (Fiawo II, 3:4-27), teƒe vovovo siwo woyɔ le Biblia me ƒe ŋkɔwo, kple Mawu ƒe ŋkɔ si woŋlɔ kple blema Hebri-ŋɔŋlɔdzesiwo.

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Denario klosalogaku: Eƒe kpɔɖeŋu si dzi Kaisaro Tiberio ƒe nɔnɔmetata kple nuŋɔŋlɔ le (Marko 12:15-17).

Nabonido ƒe Ŋutinyagbalẽ: Kpedzinuŋlɔɖi aɖe si ɖo kpe Kores ƒe Babilon dzi ɖuɖu le vome dzi. (Daniel, ta 5)

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum.

Kpe gbadza: Woŋlɔ Pontio Pilato ƒe ŋkɔ ɖe edzi le Latingbe me.

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Photograph © Israel Museum, Jerusalem; courtesy of Israel Antiquities Authority.

Ƒukukua ƒe Agbalẽxatsaxatsa ƒe Ŋutinya: Numekuku aɖe si wowɔ tso Yesaya ƒe nuŋlɔɖia ŋu ɖo kpe edzi be agbalẽ sia ƒe nyagblɔɖiwo metrɔ le egbugbɔgaŋlɔ kple asi hena ƒe 1,000 kple edzivɔ me o.

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

[Nɔnɔmetata siwo le axa 10]

Nutata aɖe si le Tito ƒe Sɔti Tame Gobaa dzi ɖo kpe Yerusalem ƒe tsɔtsrɔ̃ le ƒe 70 M.Ŋ. dzi

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma