Dzo kpo yi emenuwo dzi

Dzo kpo yi emenuawo dzi

Ðe Gɔmedzenu Veviwo Va Dzɔ le Vomea?

Ðe Gɔmedzenu Veviwo Va Dzɔ le Vomea?

 Ðe Gɔmedzenu Veviwo Va Dzɔ le Vomea?

AGBALẼ si nye The Encyclopedia of Stars & Atoms ɖe nu me be: “Atɔmwoe ƒo ƒu wɔ xexeame nuwo katã, eye ɣletivi si le adzɔge ʋĩ wu ɖesiaɖe gɔ̃ hã le eme.” Atɔm ɖekaɖekawo le sue akpa be woakpɔ, gake ne woƒo wo nu ƒu la, wozua atikemenu vevi siwo ŋu wonya nu tsoe. Nu vevi siawo dometɔ aɖewo nye nusiwo woate ŋu akpɔ kple ŋku; bubuwo nye gas si womate ŋu akpɔ o. Ðe woate ŋu aɖe alesi atikemenu vevi siawo wɔ va dzɔ le vome la mea?

Nu Vevi 1 Vaseɖe 92 lia

Togbɔ be hydrogen (haidrodzin) ye nye atɔm si le tsɛ wu ɖesiaɖe hã la, edoa ŋusẽ ɣletiviwo abe míaƒe ɣea ene eye ehiã bene woate ŋu anɔ agbe. Proton (protɔn) ɖeka koe nye haidrodzin-atɔm ƒe nucleus si le atɔm ƒe titina eye electron (elɛktrɔn) ɖeka koe ƒoa xlã nucleus ma. Atikemenu vevi bubuwo, abe karbɔn, ɔksidzin, sika, kple mekuri ene, nye atɔm geɖe siwo hã me elɛktrɔn gbogbo aɖewo nɔa xlã ƒom nucleus si le atɔm titina, si hã nye nu wluiwlui siwo nye neutron-wo kple protɔn-wo ƒe ƒuƒoƒo.

Ƒe 450 enye si va yi la, atikemenu 12 koe wonya. Esi wova nɔ kekem ɖe geɖe ŋu la, dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyalawo de dzesii be ɖe wole dzɔdzɔmeɖoɖo aɖe nu. Eye esi woɖo wo hamehame ɖe ɖoɖonu la, dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyalawo kpɔe be atikemenu vevi siwo le ha ɖeka me la ƒe nɔnɔmewo le ɖeka. Gake dometsotso aɖewo nɔ alesi woɖo nuawoe la dome, si fia be gɔmedzenu vevi aɖewo li si womenya o. Esia na Russiatɔ dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyala Dmitry Mendeleyev gblɔe ɖi be gɔmedzenu vevi bubu si anye 32 lia, si nye germanium gali, eye wògblɔ eƒe amadede, kpekpeme, kple sesẽme, kple eƒe tenɔnɔ ɖe dzoxɔxɔ nu seƒe ɖi. Dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyagbalẽ si nye Chemistry si woŋlɔ le ƒe 1995 me gblɔ be, Mendeleyev ƒe “nya siwo wògblɔ ɖi le gɔmedzenu vevi siwo ŋu womeke ɖo o—siwo nye gallium kple scandium ŋu hã—va sɔ ɖe enu pɛpɛpɛ.”

Le ɣeyiɣi aɖe megbe la, dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyalawo va gblɔe ɖi be gɔmedzenu vevi siwo womenya o gali eye woƒo nu tso woƒe nɔnɔme aɖewo ŋu. Mlɔeba wova ke ɖe gɔmedzenu vevi siwo womenya o la katã ŋu. Ewɔe be dometsotso aɖeke megava le alesi woɖo nuawo hamehame ɖe ɖoɖo nu la dome o. Alesi gɔmedzenu veviawo le ɖoɖonu le dzɔdzɔme nu la nɔ te ɖe protɔn xexlẽme si le atɔm ƒe nucleus la me dzi, eye wodze egɔme tso nu vevi 1, si nye haidrodzin, dzi vaseɖe nuvevi nɔɖokuisi mamlɛtɔ si le anyigba dzi si nye 92 lia dzi, eye eyae nye uranium. Nudogoɖenunu koe esia nyea?

De ŋugble le tomenu vevi hamehame siwo li hã ŋu kpɔ. Sika kple mekuri nye tomenu siwo ƒe amadedewo to vovo eye woklẽna. Ðeka le  ga ƒe nɔnɔme me eye evelia le tsi ƒe nɔnɔme me. Ke hã, wokplɔ wo nɔewo ɖo nye gɔmedzenu vevi 79 lia kple 80 lia. Nu wluiwlui siwo nye elɛktrɔn 79, protɔn 79, kple neutron 118 ye le sika ƒe atɔm ɖeka me. Elɛktrɔn kple protɔn ɖekaɖeka koe mekuri tsɔ le ŋgɔe na sika eye woƒe neutron ya de sɔsɔ ge kple wo nɔewo.

Nudogoɖenunu koe wònye be tɔtrɔ sue si woawɔ le ɖoɖo si nu atɔm me nu wluiwluiwo le me na wokpɔa tomenu hamehame xɔasi siawoa? Ke ŋusẽ siwo léa atɔm me nu wluiwluiwo ƒoa ƒui ya ɖe? The Encyclopedia of Stars & Atoms ɖe nu me be: “Dzɔdzɔmeŋusẽ ŋuti see kplɔa nusianu si le Xexeame, tso nu suetɔ kekeake dzi va ɖo ɣletivihatsotso gãtɔ kekeake dzi.” De ŋugble le nusi adzɔ ne se mawo dometɔ ɖeka trɔ ŋu kpɔ. Le kpɔɖeŋu me, nukae adzɔ ne wowɔ tɔtrɔ le ŋusẽ si naa elɛktrɔnwo le xlã ƒom atɔm ƒe nucleus la ŋu?

Dzɔdzɔmeŋusẽ Siwo le Ðoɖo Nyui Nu

Bu nusi adzɔ ne ŋusẽ si le elektriknuheŋusẽ ŋu la ɖiɖi ŋu kpɔ. Ðk. David Block gblɔ le eƒe agbalẽ si nye Star Watch me be “awɔe be elɛktrɔnwo magalé ɖe atɔmwo ŋu o.” Nuka tututue ema afia? Egblɔ kpee be: “Afia be ŋusẽ aɖeke manɔ atikemenuwo me le xexeame o!” Aleke gbegbe míada akpee nye si ɖe se siwo woɖo da ɖi si wɔe be ŋusẽ nɔa atikemenuwo ŋu enye si! Le kpɔɖeŋu me, haidrodzin-atɔm eve wɔa ɖeka kple ɔksidzin-atɔm ɖeka hewɔa nu wluiwlui siwo ƒo ƒu nye tsi, si le vevie la.

Elektriknuheŋusẽ ɖiɖi zi gbɔ zi 100 wu nukliaŋusẽ si léa atɔm me nu veviwo ƒoa ƒui. Nukae adzɔ ne ƒomedodo sia trɔ? John Barrow kple Frank Tipler siwo nye dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyalawo ɖe eme be: “Nenye ɖe nuklia kple elektrik ƒe nuheŋusẽawo de sɔsɔ ge kple wo nɔewo vie la, anye ne atɔm siwo le karbɔn me mate ŋu anɔ anyi o.” Ne karbɔn meli o la, agbe manya nɔ o. Karbɔn me atɔmwoe nyea nu gbagbe ɖesiaɖe ƒe kpekpeme 20 le alafa me.

Nu vevi bubu hãe nye ŋusẽ si le elektriknuheŋusẽ ŋu ne wotsɔe sɔ kple dzɔdzɔmenuheŋusẽ. Magazine si nye New Scientist ɖe nu me be: “Tɔtrɔ suetɔ kekeake si woawɔ le dzɔdzɔmenuheŋusẽ kple elektriknuheŋusẽ ŋu la ana ɣletivi gãwo abe Ɣe la ene nazu blue giant-ɣletivi [siwo ƒe dzoxɔxɔ nu sẽ akpa na agbe nɔnɔ] alo red dwarf-ɣletivi [siwo ƒe dzoxɔxɔ nu mesẽ alé agbe ɖe te o].”

Ŋusẽ bubu, si nye nukliaŋusẽ si nu mesẽ o, kpɔa ŋusẽ ɖe atɔmwo ƒe dɔwɔwɔ ablaɖeɖetɔe le ɣe me la dzi. Dzɔdzɔmeŋusẽŋununyala Freeman Dyson ɖe nu me be: “Ŋusẽ si mele eŋu o la sɔ pɛpɛpɛ, ale be haidrodzin si le ɣea me la nalólo vivivi ɖe ɖoɖo nu.” Míate ŋu ana kpɔɖeŋu bubu geɖe atsɔ afia alesi míaƒe agbe nɔ te ɖe se kple nɔnɔme siwo da sɔ nyuie le xexeame dzii. Dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunya ŋuti nuŋlɔla Nufialagã Paul Davies tsɔ xexeame ƒe se kple nɔnɔme siawo sɔ kple nulénuwo eye wògblɔ be: “Edze abe ele be woade nulénu siawo wòasɔ pɛpɛpɛ hafi agbe nanya nɔ le xexeame ene.”

Ɣeyiɣi didi aɖe hafi Aƒetɔ Isaac Newton nava nya nu tso dzɔdzɔmenuheŋusẽ ŋu la, Biblia ƒo nu tso ɖoɖo alo se mawo siwo woɖo la ŋu. Wobia Hiob be: “Wòe ɖo se siwo kplɔa dziƒoa, alo wòe ɖo dzɔdzɔmese siwo le anyigba dzia?” (Hiob 38:33, The New English Bible) Nyabiabia bubu siwo na wòkpɔ alesi wòbɔbɔ ɖe anyii lae nye, “Afika nènɔ, esime meɖo anyigba gɔme anyi?” kple “Ameka ɖo eƒe dzidzeme?”—Hiob 38:4, 5.

[Aɖaka si le axa 6]

ATƆM ME NU VEVIWO

Nu vevi siwo nye haidrodzin, ɔksidzin, kple karbɔn ye ƒo ƒu wɔ atɔm siwo le wò lãme la ƒe alafa memama 98 lɔƒo. Emegbe naitrodzin, si wɔ eƒe akpa si nye 1.4 le alafa me kplɔe ɖo. Lãmenu vevi bubu siwo mesɔ gbɔ o gake wohiã hena agbenɔnɔ hã li.

[Chart/Diagram on page 6, 7]

(Edze nyuie le agbalẽa ŋutɔ me)

 Le ɣeyiɣi si me wota nyati sia la, dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyalawo wɔ gɔmedzenu vevi 93 lia kple esiwo lolo wu, vaseɖe nu vevi 118 lia dzi. Gɔmedzenu vevi siawo sɔ ɖe alesi wogblɔe ɖi be woanɔ le “periodic table” la me dzi.

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Etsoƒe: Los Alamos National Laboratory

Gɔmedzenu Atom ƒe xexlẽdzesi

vevi ƒe ŋkɔ Dzesi (protɔn xexlẽme)

hydrogen H 1

helium He 2

lithium Li 3

beryllium Be 4

boron B 5

carbon C 6

nitrogen N 7

oxygen O 8

fluorine F 9

neon Ne 10

sodium Na 11

magnesium Mg 12

aluminum Al 13

silicon Si 14

phosphorus P 15

sulfur S 16

chlorine Cl 17

argon Ar 18

potassium K 19

calcium Ca 20

scandium Sc 21

titanium Ti 22

vanadium V 23

chromium Cr 24

manganese Mn 25

iron Fe 26

cobalt Co 27

nickel Ni 28

copper Cu 29

zinc Zn 30

gallium Ga 31

germanium Ge 32

arsenic As 33

selenium Se 34

bromine Br 35

krypton Kr 36

rubidium Rb 37

strontium Sr 38

yttrium Y 39

zirconium Zr 40

niobium Nb 41

molybdenum Mo 42

technetium Tc 43

ruthenium Ru 44

rhodium Rh 45

palladium Pd 46

silver Ag 47

cadmium Cd 48

indium In 49

tin Sn 50

antimony Sb 51

tellurium Te 52

iodine I 53

xenon Xe 54

cesium Cs 55

barium Ba 56

lanthanum La 57

cerium Ce 58

praseodymium Pr 59

neodymium Nd 60

promethium Pm 61

samarium Sm 62

europium Eu 63

gadolinium Gd 64

terbium Tb 65

dysprosium Dy 66

holmium Ho 67

erbium Er 68

thulium Tm 69

ytterbium Yb 70

lutetium Lu 71

hafnium Hf 72

tantalum Ta 73

tungsten W 74

rhenium Re 75

osmium Os 76

iridium Ir 77

platinum Pt 78

gold Au 79

mercury Hg 80

thallium Tl 81

lead Pb 82

bismuth Bi 83

polonium Po 84

astatine At 85

radon Rn 86

francium Fr 87

radium Ra 88

actinium Ac 89

thorium Th 90

protactinium Pa 91

uranium U 92

neptunium Np 93

plutonium Pu 94

americium Am 95

curium Cm 96

berkelium Bk 97

californium Cf 98

einsteinium Es 99

fermium Fm 100

mendelevium Md 101

nobelium No 102

lawrencium Lr 103

rutherfordium Rf 104

dubnium Db 105

seaborgium Sg 106

bohrium Bh 107

hassium Hs 108

meitnerium Mt 109

110

111

112

114

116

118

[Diagram]

(Edze nyuie le agbalẽa ŋutɔ me)

Ðe alesi gɔmedzenu veviwo le ɖoɖo nu hewɔ ɖeka le “periodic table” la me fia be wodzɔ le vome alo be nunyala aɖee wɔ wo?

Helium atom

Electron

Proton

Neutron

[Diagram/Picture on page 7]

(Edze nyuie le agbalẽa ŋutɔ me)

Aleke wòdzɔe be ŋusẽ ene siwo dzena la le ɖoɖo nyui nu?

ELEKTRIKNUHEŊUSẼ

NUKLIAŊUSẼ SESẼ

NUHEŊUSẼ

NUKLIAŊUSẼ MASẼMASẼ

Tsi ƒe “molecule”

Atɔm ƒe “nucleus”

“Blue giant” ɣletivi

“Red dwarf” ɣletivi

Ɣe