MU FYALO ifingi, abantu nga balepima ifyo bafinine nelyo balefwaya ukwishiba indalama babomfeshe ku fintu bashitile babomfya amanambala ayo beta ukuti Hindu-Arabic. Mulandu nshi babomfesha aya manambala? Cimoneka kwati inshila ya kulembelamo amanambala ukubomfya 0 ukufika pa 9 yatendekele ku India, e lyo abasambilila abalelemba mu ciArabic e basalangenye iyi nshila ku fyalo fya basungu. Pali aba, uwali pa ntanshi ni Muhammad ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi. Afwile afyalilwe mu calo ico beta nomba ukuti Uzbekistan nalimo mu 780 C.E., kabili bamwita ukuti “kalapashi wa nsamushi.” Mulandu nshi bamwitila ifi?

“KALAPASHI WA NSAMUSHI”

Mu citabo ico Al-Khwarizmi alembele ica The Book of Restoring and Balancing, mwaliba ifya kubomfya amanamba ayanono na pali 1 e lyo alilondolwe bwino sana ifya kusanga insamushi ishakosa kabili alilengele bambi nabo bashitemwa. Ishiwi lya ciNgeleshi ilya algebra (e kutila insamushi sha kubomfya ifilembo mu nshita ya manambala) lyafuma kwi shiwi lya ciArabic ilya Kitab al-jabr wa’l-muqabala. Uulemba pa fya sayansi Ehsan Masood alandile pa nsamushi sha algebra ukuti, “ishi nsamushi shalicindama sana pantu shilabomba sana muli sayansi.” *

Kalemba umo atile, “pa myaka iingi abana ba masukulu abengi bali-ilishanya ukuti [al-Khwarizmi] nga tatendeke fye ukulemba pa nsamushi.” Na lyo line, al-Khwarizmi atile alefwaya ukwangushako fye inshila ya kucitilamo amakwebo, ukwakanya ifya cishale, ukwakanya impaanga, e lyo na fimbipo ifikabila ukupenda.

 Pa numa ya myaka iingi, abasungu abaishibe sana insamushi apali na Galileo e lyo na Fibonacci, balicindike sana al-Khwarizmi pantu alilondolwele bwino ifya kusanga insamushi. Inshila al-Khwarizmi alondolwelelemo insamushi yalengele basambililepo na fimbi pa nsamushi ishalekanalekana pamo nga algebra, arithmetic, na trigonometry. Na kabili ishi nsamushi shalyafwile abasambilila aba ku Middle East ukwishiba ifya kusanga ubukulu bwa makoona e lyo na pa kusambilila ifya mu muulu. *

Algebra: “E nshila yacindama sana pa nshila shonse isha kusangilamo insamushi”

Abalebelenga ifitabo fya kwa al-Khwarizmi balisangileko inshila ishipya isha kubomfeshamo amanambala ayanono pali 1 kabili batendeke ukubomfya insamushi pa kwishiba ubukulu bwa cintu. Abasambilile ifya kushila ifyo ifikuulwa fifwile ukukuulwa e lyo na bakakuula aba ku Middle East batendeke ukubomfya ishi nshila isha kusangilamo insamushi ilyo abena Bulaya bashilashishiba. Abena Bulaya bena baishileishiba ishi nsamushi ilyo kwali inkondo ishaliko pa kati ka baShilamu na batila Bena Kristu. Ababasambilishe ukwishiba sana insamushi baShilamu abasambilile insamushi abo basendele bunkole e lyo na bena Middle East bambi abakukiile ku Bulaya.

ABANTU ABENGI BASAMBILILA ISHI NSAMUSHI

Mu kuya kwa nshita, amabuuku ya nsamushi ayo al-Khwarizmi alembele, baliyapilibwilile mu ciLatin. Pa bantu abaishibikwa sana ukuti ebalengele abena Bulaya ukutemwa ukubomfya amanambala ayo beta ukuti Hindu-Arabic, pali na Fibonacci (c. 1170-1250), umwina Italy uwaleitwa no kuti Leonardo uwaleikala ku Pisa. Asambilile iyi milembele ilyo ale-enda mu fyalo fyaba mupepi na bemba wa Mediterranean. Pa numa alembele icitabo ca nsamushi ica Book of Calculation.

Palipitile imyaka iingi pa kuti abantu abengi beshibe inshila sha kusangilamo insamushi isho Al-Khwarizmi alembele. Lelo muno nshiku, ishi nshila esho abantu babomfya sana muli sayansi, pa kupanga ifyakupangapanga, e lyo na pa kucita amakwebo.

^ par. 5 Muli algebra, babomfya ifilembo pamo nga x nelyo y pa kusanga inambala iishishibikwe. Ku ca kumwenako, pa kusanga x + 4 = 6, mulingile ukufumya 4 muli x + 4 e lyo na muli 6, mwalasanga ukuti x ni 2.

^ par. 7 AbaGriki abasambilile ifya mu muulu, e babalilepo ukusanga insamushi sha kusanga ubukulu bwa makoona ya fintu. AbaShilamu abasambilila balebomfya ishi nsamushi sha trigonometry pa kwishiba ukwabela Mecca, umusumba uo abaShilamu bamona ukuti wa mushilo sana. AbaShilamu nga balepepa balolesha ku Mecca. Ukulingana no lutambi lwabo, pa kushiika umuntu uufwile balosha umutwe wakwe ku Mecca, e lyo nangu nga baleipaya inama sha kushitisha, abaShilamu balolesha ku Mecca pa kushipaya.